Encyclopedia of Creativity, Invention, Innovation and Entrepreneurship

Living Edition
| Editors: Elias G. Carayannis (Editor-in-Chief)

Divergent Versus Convergent Thinking

Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-6616-1_362-2

Synonyms

Key Concepts and Definition of Terms

The concept of divergent and convergent thinking was created by J.P. Guilford to term different types of psychological operations while problem solving (Guilford 1967). Divergent thinking is defined as producing a diverse assortment of appropriate responses to an open-ended question or task in which the product is not completely determined by the information. So, divergent thinking concentrates on generating a large number of alternative responses including original, unexpected, or unusual ideas. Thus, divergent thinking is associated with creativity.

Convergent thinkinginvolves finding only the single correct answer, conventional to a well-defined problem. Many facts or ideas are examined while convergent thinking for their logical validity or in which a set of rules is followed. Convergent...

Keywords

Coherence Metaphor 
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access

References

  1. Arden R, Chavez RS, Grazioplene R, Jung RE. Neuroimaging creativity: a psychometric view. Behav Brain Res. 2010;214(2):143–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bogen JE. Split-brain basics: relevance for the concept of one’s other mind. J Am Acad Psychoanal. 2000;28:341–69.Google Scholar
  3. Dehaene S, Tzourio N, Frak V, Raynaud L, et al. Cerebral activations during number multiplication and comparison: a PET study. Neuropsychologia. 1996;34:1097–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Goel V, Dolan RJ. Differential involvement of left prefrontal cortex in inductive and deductive reasoning. Cognition. 2004;93(3):B109–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Gonen-Yaacovi G, Cruz de Souza L, Levy R, Urbanski M, et al. Rostral and caudal prefrontal contribution to creativity: a meta analysis of functional imaging data. Front Hum Neurosci. 2013;7:465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Goodwin GP, Johnson-Laird PN. Reasoning about relations. Psychol Rev. 2005;112(2):468–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Guilford JP. Creativity. Am Psychol. 1950;5:444–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Guilford JP. The nature of human intelligence. New York: McGraw-Hill; 1967.Google Scholar
  9. Kim KH. Can only intelligent people be creative? A meta-analysis. J Second Gift Educ. 2005;16:57–66.Google Scholar
  10. Mihov KM, Denzler M, Forster J. Hemispheric specialization and creative thinking: a meta-analytic review of lateralization of creativity. Brain Cogn. 2010;72:442–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Moore DW, Bhadelia RA, Billings RL, Fulwiler C, et al. Hemispheric connectivity and the visual-spatial divergent-thinking component of creativity. Brain Cogn. 2009;70:267–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Perleth C, Sierwald W. Entwicklungs- und Leistungsanalysen zur Hochbegabung. In: Heller KA, editor. Hochbegabung im Kindes- und Jugendalter. 2nd ed. Gottingen: Hogrefe; 2001. p. 171–355.Google Scholar
  13. Razumnikova OM. Gender-dependent frequency-spatial organization of the brain cortex activity during convergent and divergent thinking: II. Analysis of the EEG coherence. Hum Physiol. 2005;31(3):275–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Wu X, Yang W, Tong D, Sun J, et al. A meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies on divergent thinking using activation likelihood estimation. Hum Brain Mapp. 2015;36(7):2703–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Scientific-Research Institute of Physiology and Basic MedicineNovosibirskRussia
  2. 2.Novosibirsk State Technical UniversityNovosibirskRussia