Citizen Science in Health Domain
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What Is Citizen Science?
Democratization and Openness
In the last decade, many authors have argued that the separation between roles traditionally associated with knowledge production on the one hand, and roles associated with utilizing and “consuming” knowledge on the other, has become blurry (Goodchild 2007; Nielsen 2011; Fischer et al. 2012; see also Gibbons et al. 1994; Nowotny et al. 2001. For an overview see Riesch 2015). While this is true in many fields of science (Goodchild 2007; Fischer et al. 2012), the health domain is a particularly illustrative example. Patients have started to organize their own medical studies and trials (Wicks et al. 2011); questions that professional scientists have been struggling for years or even decades have been solved by people playing computer games (e.g., Khatib et al. 2011), and patients facing difficult treatment decisions have put their medical information online to invite experts from all over the world to comment...
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