Clusters, Networks, and Entrepreneurship

  • Marc-Hubert Depret
  • Abdelillah Hamdouch
Living reference work entry


District; Hub; Milieu; National system of innovation; Park; Regional innovation system

Innovation processes often depend upon the availability or constitution of a critical mass of knowledge, (multidisciplinary) competencies and (entrepreneurial, managerial, and human) resources that are complex, cumulative and, for the most, still embryonic or difficult to access. Considerable efforts must be also devoted for mobilizing and training of the manpower, acquisition of new knowledge and know-how, and informing employees about new technologies and services, as well as their market potential. Equally important here is the need for a close coordination among a great number of heterogeneous and geographically dispersed actors. The potential for innovation and the competitive positioning of actors “depend increasingly on their differentiated abilities to collaborate with a wide range of partners – those with key complementary competencies and significant specific resources, and/or...


Innovation Process Innovation Actor Entrepreneurial Opportunity Regional Innovation System Entrepreneurship Policy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of Poitiers, CRIEF, IRIAFPoitiers (campus of Niort)France
  2. 2.University of ToursToursFrance