Encyclopedia of Behavioral Medicine

Living Edition
| Editors: Marc Gellman

Emotional Expression

  • Michelle SkinnerEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-6439-6_951-2


Emotional expression refers to how one conveys emotional experience through both verbal and nonverbal behavior (Gross 1998b, 1999). Emotional expression should be distinguished from emotional experience in that it is possible to experience emotions without expressing them. Emotional expression is an important part of emotion regulation and can affect health outcomes. Emotional expression is embedded in the broader domain of emotion regulation, which is defined as how individuals, either consciously or unconsciously, influence, experience, and express emotions (Gross 1999). Emotion regulation unfolds over time in a given situation either before emotional experience, during emotional experience, or in response to emotional experience (Gross 1998a). Emotion regulation involves coordination of several systems including how one thinks about emotion, physiological reactivity elicited by emotion, and behavioral responses such as emotional expression and utilizing coping strategies...

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References and Further Reading

  1. Baumeister, R. F., & Vohs, K. D. (Eds.). (2004). Handbook of self-regulation: Research, theory, and applications. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  2. Gottman, J. M. (2000). The seven principles of making marriage work. New York: Three Rivers Press.Google Scholar
  3. Gross, J. J. (1998a). Antecedent- and response-focused emotion regulation: Divergent consequences for experience, expression, and physiology. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 224–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Gross, J. J. (1998b). The emerging field of emotion regulation: An integrative review. Review of General Psychology, Special Issue: New directions in research on emotion, 2(3), 271–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Gross, J. J. (1999). Emotion regulation: Past, present, and future. Cognition & Emotion, 13(5), 551–573.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Gross, J. J. (2002). Emotion regulation: Affective, cognitive, and social consequences. Psychophysiology, 39, 281–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Gross, J. J. (Ed.). (2007). Handbook of emotion regulation. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  8. Hatfield, E., Cacioppo, J. T., & Rapson, R. L. (1994). Emotional contagion. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Kennedy-Moore, E., & Watson, J. C. (1999). Expressing emotion: Myths, realities, and therapeutic strategies. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  10. Lazarus, R. S. (1991). Emotion and adaptation. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of UtahSalt Lake CityUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Deborah J. Wiebe
    • 1
  1. 1.Psychological SciencesUniversity of California, MercedMercedUSA