Encyclopedia of Behavioral Medicine

Living Edition
| Editors: Marc Gellman

Carbohydrates

  • James E. TurnerEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-6439-6_858-2

Synonyms

Definition (and Description)

A carbohydrate is an organic compound, i.e., a compound containing a carbon atom. In addition to carbon, all carbohydrates also comprise the atoms hydrogen and oxygen and share the common formula C n H 2n O n , where n is any whole number. The name carbohydrate is derived from the bonding of a water molecule to a carbon atom, thus carbohydrates are hydrates of carbon.

Carbohydrates can be classified into several categories. Monosaccharides are the most basic units, and when two monosaccharides are chemically bonded, a disaccharide carbohydrate is formed. Oligosaccharides are generally considered to be carbohydrates with three to ten monosaccharides, and polysaccharides are carbohydrates with more than ten of these basic units. In nutrition, carbohydrates are often categorized into “simple” and “complex” forms. Simple carbohydrates include monosaccharides and disaccharides (sugars), whereas complex carbohydrates are oligosaccharides and polysaccharides (starches). Carbohydrates, despite being nonessential dietary constituents, function primarily as source of energy and are a particularly important fuel for high-intensity exercise.

Cross-References

References and Further Readings

  1. Bender, D. A. (2002). Introduction to nutrition and metabolism (3rd ed.). London: Taylor & Francis.Google Scholar
  2. McArdle, W. D., Katch, F. I., & Katch, V. L. (2001). Exercise physiology. Energy, nutrition and human performance (5th ed.). Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media LLC 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department for HealthUniversity of BathBathUK

Section editors and affiliations

  • Anna C. Phillips
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Sport, Exercise & Rehabilitation SciencesUniversity of BirminghamBirminghamUK