Sarcopenia is a syndrome characterized by a progressive generalized loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength with a risk of adverse outcomes such as physical disability, poor quality of life, and death. Sarcopenia is derived from Greek “sarx” for flesh and “penia” for loss.
The global population aged 60 years or older is expected to more than double from 901 million in the year 2015 to 2.1 billion by 2050 (www.un.org). A common result of the aging process is the loss of skeletal muscle mass. This is associated with metabolic disease such as type 2 diabetes (Park et al. 2009), impaired physical performance (e.g., walking and rising from a chair), self-reported disability (Janssen et al. 2002), and the increased risk of accidental falls (Szulc et al. 2005) and fractures (Fiatarone Singh et al. 2009). Hip fractures are among the most common site of fracture in elderly individuals (Johnell and...
KeywordsMuscle Mass Resistance Training Resistance Exercise Skeletal Muscle Mass Muscle Protein Synthesis
References and Further Readings
- Bean, J. F., Leveille, S. G., Kiely, D. K., Bandinelli, S., Guralnik, J. M., & Ferrucci, L. (2003). A comparison of leg power and leg strength within the InCHIANTI study: Which influences mobility more? Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 58(8), 728–733.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Breen, L., Stokes, K. A., Churchward-Venne, T. A., Moore, D. R., Baker, S. K., Smith, K., Atherton, P. J., & Phillips, S. M. (2013). Two weeks of reduced activity decreases leg lean mass and induces “anabolic resistance” of myofibrillar protein synthesis in healthy elderly. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 98(6), 2604–2612.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cruz-Jentoff, A. J., Baeyens, J. P., Bauer, J. M., Boirie, J. M., Cederholm, T., Landi, F., Martin, F. C., Michel, J. P., Rolland, Y., Schneider, S. M., Topinkova, E., Vandewoude, M., & Zamboni, M. (2010). Sarcopenia: European consensus on definition and diagnosis: Report of the European working group on sarcopenia in older people. Age and Ageing, 39(4), 412–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Cruz-Jentoft, A. J., Landi, F., Schneider, S. M., Zúñiga, C., Arai, H., Boirie, Y., Chen, L. K., Fielding, R. A., Martin, F. C., Michel, J. P., Sieber, C., Stout, J. R., Studenski, S. A., Vellas, B., Woo, J., Zamboni, M., & Cederholm, T. (2014). Prevalence of and interventions for sarcopenia in ageing adults: A systematic review. Report of the International Sarcopenia Initiative (EWGSOP and IWGS). Age and Ageing, 43(6), 748–759.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Fiatarone Singh, M. A., Singh, N. A., Hansen, R. D., Finnegan, T. P., Allen, B. J., Diamond, T. H., Diwan, A. D., Lloyd, B. D., Williamson, D. A., Smith, E. U., Grady, J. N., Stavrinos, T. M., & Thompson, M. W. (2009). Methodology and baseline characteristics for the sarcopenia and hip fracture study: A 5-year prospective study. Journal of Gerontolgical Advances in Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 64A(5), 568–574.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Goodpaster, B. H., Park, S. W., Harris, T. B., Kritchevsky, S. B., Nevitt, M., Schwartz, A. V., Simonsick, E. M., Tylavsky, F. A., Visser, M., & Newman, A. B. (2006). The loss of skeletal muscle strength, mass, and quality in older adults: The health, aging and body composition study. The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 61(10), 1059–1064.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Houston, D. K., Nicklas, B. J., Ding, J., Harris, T. B., Tylavsky, F. A., Newman, A. B., Lee, J. S., Sahyoun, N. R., Visser, M., Kritchevsky, S. B., & Health ABC Study. (2008). Dietary protein intake is associated with lean mass change in older, community-dwelling adults: The Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC) Study. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 87(1), 150–155.Google Scholar
- Panula, J., Pihlajamäki, H., Mattila, V. M., Jaatinen, P., Vahlberg, T., Aarnio, P., & Kivela, S. L. (2011). Mortality and cause of death in hip fracture patients aged 65 or older – A population-based study. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, 12(105), 1–6.Google Scholar
- Park, S. W., Goodpaster, B. H., Lee, J. S., Kuller, L. H., Boudreau, R., de Rekeneire, N., Harris, T. B., Kritchevsky, S., Tylavsky, F. A., Nevitt, M., Cho, Y. W., & Newman, A. B. (2009). Excessive loss of skeletal muscle mass in older people with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care, 32, 1993–1997.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Rosenberg, I. (1989). Summary comments: Epidemiological and methodological problems in determining nutritional status of older persons. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 50, 1231–1233.Google Scholar
- Wagenmakers, A. J., Strauss, J. A., Shepherd, S. O., Keske, M. A., & Cocks, M. (2016). Increased muscle blood supply and transendothelial nutrient and insulin transport induced by food intake and exercise: Effect of obesity and ageing. Journal of Physiology, 594, 2207–2222.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- www.un.org United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs: Population Division. (2015). World population prospects: The 2015 revision, key findings and advance tables. Accessed 25 Aug 2016.