Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, is a chronic disease of the lung that is characterized by irreversible decreased airflow. The disease is also associated with a chronic inflammatory response to inhaled toxins, mainly cigarette smoke. Therefore, all COPD patients with smoking habit should be encouraged to quit smoking. The mainstay drugs of COPD are bronchodilators, including beta agonists and anticholinergics.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is currently the fourth leading cause of death worldwide, and WHO predicts that this will rise to number three by 2030, resulting in the huge burden of the disease on healthcare systems. This chronic disease of the lung is characterized by decreased air flow and associated abnormal inflammation of the lungs. The disease results from interaction between individual risk factors (like alpha1-antitrypsin deficiencies) and...
References and Further Reading
- GOLD. (2017). Global strategy for the diagnosis, management, and prevention of COPD. Available from http://www.goldcopd.org.
- NICE. Guideline – COPD in over 16s: Diagnosis and management. Available from https://www.brit-thoracic.org.uk/standards-of-care/guidelines/nice-guideline-copd-in-over-16s-diagnosis-and-management/.
- Petty, R. L., & Nett, L. M. (2001). COPD: Prevention in the primary care setting. The National Lung Health Education Program.Google Scholar
- Standards for the diagnosis and care of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. American Thoracic Society. (1995). American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 152, S77.Google Scholar