Encyclopedia of Behavioral Medicine

Living Edition
| Editors: Marc Gellman

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT)

  • Lara TraegerEmail author
  • Emily M. Wright
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-6439-6_165-2



Cognitive behavioral therapy is a classification of psychotherapies which integrate cognitive and behavioral theories and methods. CBT approaches share fundamental assumptions that cognitions mediate situational responses, that changes in cognitive activity can affect therapeutic changes in emotions and behaviors, and that maladaptive behaviors can be extinguished or reshaped, with new skills learned through practice and reinforcement.


Brief History of CBT

CBT interventions represent an integration of behavioral and cognitive theories and methods. Behavior therapy emerged in the 1950s and 1960s through research on clinical applications of classical and operant conditioning theories (e.g., systematic desensitization; Eysenck 1966; Wolpe 1958). Behavior therapy emphasizes the primacy of behaviors, and radical behaviorists view thoughts as a type of internal behavior. The primacy of thoughts in shaping situational responses...

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References and Further Reading

  1. Antoni, M. H., Schneiderman, N., & Ironson, G. (2007). Stress management for HIV: Clinical validation and intervention manual. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  2. Beck, A. T. (1963). Thinking and depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 9, 324–333.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
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  5. Eysenck, H. J. (1966). The effects of psychotherapy. New York: International Science Press.Google Scholar
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  7. Lindson-Hawley, N., Thompson, T. P., & Begh, R. (2015). Motivational interviewing for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Systematic Review, 2. CD006936Google Scholar
  8. Penedo, F. J., Antoni, M. H., & Schneiderman, N. (2008). Cognitive-behavioral stress management for prostate cancer recovery: Facilitator guide. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Safren, S. A., Gonzalez, J. S., & Soroudi, N. (2008). Coping with chronic illness: A cognitive-behavioral therapy approach for adherence and depression: Therapist guide. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Seyffert, M., Lagisetty, P., Landgraf, J., Chopra, V., Pfeiffer, P. N., Conte, M. L., & Rogers, M. A. (2016). Internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy to treat insomnia: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One, 11. e0149139Google Scholar
  11. Stagl, J. M., Bouchard, L. C., Lechner, S. C., Blomber, B. B., Gudenkauf, L. M., Jutagir, D. R., Gluck, S., Derhagopian, R. P., Carver, C. S., & Antoni, M. H. (2015). Long-term psychological benefits of cognitive-behavioral stress management for women with breast cancer: 11-year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial. Cancer, 121, 1873–1881.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Wolpe, J. (1958). Psychotherapy by reciprocal inhibition. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Wright, J. H., Basco, M. R., & Thase, M. E. (2006). Learning cognitive-behavioral therapy: An illustrated guide. London/Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing Inc.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media LLC 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Behavioral Medicine ServiceMassachusetts General Hospital/Harvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychiatryMassachusetts General HospitalBostonUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Frank J. Penedo
    • 1
  1. 1.Departments of Medical Social Sciences, Psychology and Psychiatry & Behavioral SciencesNorthwestern UniversityChicagoUSA