Coping is efforts to prevent or diminish threat, harm, and loss or to reduce the distress that is often associated with those experiences.
The concept of coping presumes the existence of a condition of adversity or stress. A person who must deal with adversity is engaged in coping. Thus, coping is inextricably linked to stress. It is often said that stress exists whenever people confront situations that tax or exceed their ability to manage them (Lazarus 1966; Lazarus and Folkman 1984). Whenever a person is hard-pressed to deal with an obstacle or impediment or looming threat, the experience is stressful. Adversity takes several forms. Threat refers to the impending occurrence of an event that is feared will have bad consequences. Harm refers to the perception that bad consequences have already come to pass. Loss refers to the perception that something of value has been taken away.
People respond to perceptions of threat, harm, and loss in a wide variety of ways,...
References and Further Reading
- Carver, C. S. (2007). Stress, coping, and health. In H. S. Friedman & R. C. Silver (Eds.), Foundations of health psychology (pp. 117–144). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Eisenberg, N., Fabes, R. A., & Guthrie, I. (1997). Coping with stress: The roles of regulation and development. In J. N. Sandler & S. A. Wolchik (Eds.), Handbook of children’s coping with common stressors: Linking theory, research, and intervention (pp. 41–70). New York: Plenum.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lazarus, R. S. (1966). Psychological stress and the coping process. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
- Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
- Park, C. L., Lechner, S. C., Antoni, M. H., & Stanton, A. L. (Eds.). (2009). Medical illness and positive life change: Can crisis lead to personal transformation? Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
- Tennen, H., & Affleck, G. (2002). Benefit-finding and benefit-reminding. In C. R. Snyder & S. J. Lopez (Eds.), Handbook of positive psychology (pp. 584–597). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar