Encyclopedia of Behavioral Medicine

Living Edition
| Editors: Marc Gellman

Reliability and Validity

  • Yori GidronEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-6439-6_1549-2

Definition

These two concepts are the basis for assessment in most scientific work in medical and social sciences. Reliability refers to the degree of consistency in measurement and to the lack of error. There are several types of indices of reliability. Internal reliability (measured by Cronbach’s alpha) is a measure of repeatability of a measure. In psychometrics, a questionnaire of, for example, ten items is said to be reliable if its internal reliability coefficient is at least 0.70. This reflects approximately the mean correlation between each score on each item, with all remaining item scores, repeated across all items. Methodologically, this reflects a measure of repeatability, a basic premise of science. Another type of reliability is inter-rater reliability, which refers to the degree of agreement between two or more observers, evaluating a patient’s behavior, for example. Thus, in the original type A behavior interview, which currently places more emphasis on hostility,...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References and Further Readings

  1. Aarts, A. A., Anderson, J. E., Anderson, C. J., Attridge, P. R., Attwood, A., Axt, J., Babel, M., Bahník, S., Baranski, E., Barnett-Cowan, M., Bartmess, E., Beer, J., Bell, R., Bentley, H., Beyan, L., Binion, G., Borsboom, D., Bosch, A., Bosco, F. A., Bowman, S. D., Brandt, M. J., Braswell, E., Brohmer, H., Brown, B. T., Brown, K., Brüning, J., Calhoun-Sauls, A., Callahan, S. P., Chagnon, E., Chandler, J., Chartier, C. R., Cheung, F., Christopherson, C. D., Cillessen, L., Clay, R., Cleary, H., Cloud, M. D., Cohn, M., Cohoon, J., Columbus, S., Cordes, A., Costantini, G., Cramblet Alvarez, L. D., Cremata, E., Crusius, J., DeCoster, J., DeGaetano, M. A., Della Penna, N., den Bezemer, B., Deserno, M. K., Devitt, O., Dewitte, L., Dobolyi, D. G., Dodson, G. T., Donnellan, M., Donohue, R., Dore, R. A., Dorrough, A., Dreber, A., Dugas, M., Dunn, E. W., Easey, K., Eboigbe, S., Eggleston, C., Embley, J., Epskamp, S., Errington, T. M., Estel, V., Farach, F. J., Feather, J., Fedor, A., Fernández-Castilla, B., Fiedler, S., Field, J. G., Fitneva, S. A., Flagan, T., Forest, A. L., Forsell, E., Foster, J. D., Frank, M. C., Frazier, R. S., Fuchs, H., Gable, P., Galak, J., Galliani, E. M., Gampa, A., Garcia, S., Gazarian, D., Gilbert, E., Giner-Sorolla, R., Glöckner, A., Goellner, L., Goh, J. X., Goldberg, R., Goodbourn, P. T., Gordon-McKeon, S., Gorges, B., Gorges, J., Goss, J., Graham, J., Grange, J. A., Gray, J., Hartgerink, C., Hartshorne, J., Hasselman, F., Hayes, T., Heikensten, E., Henninger, F., Hodsoll, J., Holubar, T., Hoogendoorn, G., Humphries, D. J., Hung, C. O., Immelman, N., Irsik, V. C., Jahn, G., Jäkel, F., Jekel, M., Johannesson, M., Johnson, L. G., Johnson, D. J., Johnson, K. M., Johnston, W. J., Jonas, K., Joy-Gaba, J. A., Kappes, H. B., Kelso, K., Kidwell, M. C., Kim, S. K., Kirkhart, M., Kleinberg, B., Knežević, G., Kolorz, F. M., Kossakowski, J. J., Krause, R. W., Krijnen, J., Kuhlmann, T., Kunkels, Y. K., Kyc, M. M., Lai, C. K., Laique, A., Lakens, D., Lane, K. A., Lassetter, B., Lazarević, L. B., LeBel, E. P., Lee, K. J., Lee, M., Lemm, K., Levitan, C. A., Lewis, M., Lin, L., Lin, S., Lippold, M., Loureiro, D., Luteijn, I., Mackinnon, S., Mainard, H. N., Marigold, D. C., Martin, D. P., Martinez, T., Masicampo, E. J., Matacotta, J., Mathur, M., May, M., Mechin, N., Mehta, P., Meixner, J., Melinger, A., Miller, J. K., Miller, M., Moore, K., Möschl, M., Motyl, M., Müller, S. M., Munafo, M., Neijenhuijs, K. I., Nervi, T., Nicolas, G., Nilsonne, G., Nosek, B. A., Nuijten, M. B., Olsson, C., Osborne, C., Ostkamp, L., Pavel, M., Penton-Voak, I. S., Perna, O., Pernet, C., Perugini, M., Pipitone, R. N., Pitts, M., Plessow, F., Prenoveau, J. M., Rahal, R. M., Ratliff, K. A., Reinhard, D., Renkewitz, F., Ricker, A. A., Rigney, A., Rivers, A. M., Roebke, M., Rutchick, A. M., Ryan, R. S., Sahin, O., Saide, A., Sandstrom, G. M., Santos, D., Saxe, R., Schlegelmilch, R., Schmidt, K., Scholz, S., Seibel, L., Selterman, D. F., Shaki, S., Simpson, W. B., Sinclair, H. C., Skorinko, J. L., Slowik, A., Snyder, J. S., Soderberg, C., Sonnleitner, C., Spencer, N., Spies, J. R., Steegen, S., Stieger, S., Strohminger, N., Sullivan, G. B., Talhelm, T., Tapia, M., te Dorsthorst, A., Thomae, M., Thomas, S. L., Tio, P., Traets, F., Tsang, S., Tuerlinckx, F., Turchan, P., Valášek, M., van’t Veer, A. E., Van Aert, R., van Assen, M., van Bork, R., van de Ven, M., van den Bergh, D., van der Hulst, M., van Dooren, R., van Doorn, J., van Renswoude, D. R., van Rijn, H., Vanpaemel, W., Vásquez Echeverría, A., Vazquez, M., Velez, N., Vermue, M., Verschoor, M., Vianello, M., Voracek, M., Vuu, G., Wagenmakers, E. J., Weerdmeester, J., Welsh, A., Westgate, E. C., Wissink, J., Wood, M., Woods, A., Wright, E., Wu, S., Zeelenberg, M., & Zuni, K. (2015). PSYCHOLOGY. Estimating the reproducibility of psychological science. Science, 349, 1–8.Google Scholar
  2. Barefoot, J. C., Dahlstrom, W. G., & Williams, R. B., Jr. (1983). Hostility, CHD incidence, and total mortality: A 25-year follow-up study of 255 physicians. Psychosomatic Medicine, 45, 59–63.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Del Greco, L., Walop, W., & McCarthy, R. H. (1987). Questionnaire development: 2. Validity and reliability. CMAJ, 136, 699–700.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.SCALabLille 3 University and Siric OncollileLilleFrance