Encyclopedia of Behavioral Medicine

Living Edition
| Editors: Marc Gellman

Acute Myocardial Infarction

  • Siqin YeEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-6439-6_1243-2

Acute myocardial infarction (AMI), also known as heart attack or acute coronary syndrome (ACS), is a clinical condition that occurs when blood flow to regions of the heart is suddenly interrupted, causing myocardial ischemia and eventually cell death. Most commonly this is caused by coronary atherosclerosis and is initiated by the rupture or erosion of a complex, lipid-laden plaque that then triggers thrombus formation causing the total or subtotal occlusion of the coronary artery in question. Rarely, non-atherosclerotic processes such as vasospasm, vasculitis, and spontaneous coronary artery dissection may also lead to myocardial infarction.

Acute myocardial infarction is further classified into ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI), depending on the presence of ST-segment elevation on the 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG). ST-segment elevation is typically associated with thrombi that are completely occlusive, leading to a large...

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References and Further Reading

  1. American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee. (2010). Heart disease and stroke statistics 2010 update: A report from the American Heart Association. Circulation, 121, e46–e215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Amsgerdam, E. A., Wenger, N. K., Brindis, R. G., Casey, D. E., Ganiats, T. G., Holmes, D. R., Jaffe, A. S., Jneid, H., Kelly, R. F., Kontos, M. C., Levine, G. N., Liebson, P. R., Mukherjee, D., Peterson, E. D., Sabatine, M. S., Smalling, R. W., & Zieman, S. J. (2014). 2014 AHA/ACC guideline for the management of patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes. Circulation, 130, e344–e426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Antman, E. M. (2008). ST-elevation myocardial infarction: Management. In P. Libby, R. O. Bonow, D. L. Mann, D. P. Zipes, & E. Braunwald (Eds.), Braunwald's heart disease: A textbook of cardiovascular medicine (pp. 1233–1299). Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier.Google Scholar
  4. Antman, E. M., & Braunwald, E. (2008). ST-elevation myocardial infarction: Pathology, pathophysiology, and clinical features. In P. Libby, R. O. Bonow, D. L. Mann, D. P. Zipes, & E. Braunwald (Eds.), Braunwald's heart disease: A textbook of cardiovascular medicine (pp. 1207–1232). Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier.Google Scholar
  5. Cannon, C. P., & Braunwald, E. (2008). Unstable angina and non-ST elevation myocardial infarction. In P. Libby, R. O. Bonow, D. L. Mann, D. P. Zipes, & E. Braunwald (Eds.), Braunwald's heart disease: A textbook of cardiovascular medicine (pp. 319–1351). Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier.Google Scholar
  6. Cannon, C. P., & Lee, T. H. (2008). Approach to the patient with chest pain. In P. Libby, R. O. Bonow, D. L. Mann, D. P. Zipes, & E. Braunwald (Eds.), Braunwald's heart disease: A textbook of cardiovascular medicine (pp. 1195–1205). Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier.Google Scholar
  7. O’Gara, P. T., Kushner, F. G., Ascheim, D., Casey, D. E., Chung, M. K., de Lemos, J. A., Ettinger, S. M., Fang, J. C., Fesmire, F. M., Franklin, B. A., Granger, C. B., Krumholz, H. M., Linderbaum, J. A., Morrow, D. A., Newby, L. K., Ornato, J. P., Ou, N., Radford, M. J., Tamis-Holland, J. E., Tommaso, C. L., Tracy, C. M., Woo, Y. J., & Zhao, D. X. (2012). 2013 ACCF/AHA guideline for the management of ST-elevation myocardial infarction. Circulation.  https://doi.org/10.1161/CIR.0b013e3182742cf6.
  8. The Joint ESC/ACCF/AHA/WHF (2012). Task Force for the Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction. Third universal definition of myocardial infarction. Circulation, 126(16), 2010–2035.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of CardiologyColumbia University Medical CenterNew YorkUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Linda C. Baumann
    • 1
  1. 1.School of NursingUniversity of Wisconsin-MadisonMadisonUSA