Encyclopedia of Behavioral Medicine

Living Edition
| Editors: Marc Gellman

Readiness for Return-To-Work (RRTW) Scale

  • Joanne ParkEmail author
  • Douglas P. Gross
  • Shaniff Esmail
  • Renée-Louise Franche
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-6439-6_101934-1


The Readiness for Return-To-Work (RRTW) scale assesses an individual’s stage of readiness for return to work (RTW) among individuals off work due to a health condition and stage of readiness for work maintenance in those who have returned to work (Franche et al. 2007). Informed by the readiness for change model (Prochaska et al. 1994), the questionnaire categorizes respondents who are not working into four stages (precontemplation, contemplation, prepared for action-self-evaluative, or prepared for action-behavioral), while working respondents are categorized into either uncertain maintenance or proactive maintenance. The scale provides a final score for each readiness stage, calculated by taking the mean of items creating each factor. Higher scores within each stage indicate higher levels of beliefs associated with that stage. Questionnaire outcome can inform health-care providers and other stakeholders about how best to intervene (if at all) to facilitate sustainable RTW....

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References and Further Reading

  1. Aasdahl, L., Pape, K., Jensen, C., et al. (2017). Associations between the readiness for return to work scale and return to work: A prospective study. Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation. Advanced online publication.Google Scholar
  2. Braathen, T. N., Brage, S., Tellnes, G., & Eftedal, M. (2013). Psychometric properties of the readiness for return to work scale in inpatient occupational rehabilitation in Norway. Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation, 23, 371–380.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Franche, R. L., & Krause, N. (2002). Readiness for return to work following injury or illness: Conceptualizing the interpersonal impact of health care, workplace, and insurance factors. Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation, 12, 233–256.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Franche, R. L., Corbière, M., Lee, H., Breslin, F. C., & Hepburn, C. G. (2007). The Readiness for Return-To-Work (RRTW) scale: Development and validation of a self-report staging scale in lost-time claimants with musculoskeletal disorders. Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation, 17, 450–472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Park J. (2017). Motivational interviewing and injured workers: Facilitating behaviour change in work rehabilitation. PhD thesis, University of Alberta.Google Scholar
  6. Pransky, G., Gatchel, R., Linton, S. J., & Loisel, P. (2005). Improving return to work research. Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation, 15, 453–457.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Prochaska, J. O., Velicer, W. F., Rossi, J. S., et al. (1994). Stages of change and decisional balance for 12 problem behaviors. Health Psychology, 13, 39–46.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Young, A. E., Roessler, R. T., Wasiak, R., McPherson, K. M., van Poppel, M. N., & Anema, J. R. (2005). A developmental conceptualization of return to work. Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation, 15, 557–568.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joanne Park
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Douglas P. Gross
    • 3
  • Shaniff Esmail
    • 2
  • Renée-Louise Franche
    • 4
    • 5
    • 6
  1. 1.Workers’ Compensation Board of Alberta Millard HealthEdmontonCanada
  2. 2.Department of Occupational TherapyUniversity of AlbertaEdmontonCanada
  3. 3.Department of Physical TherapyUniversity of AlbertaEdmontonCanada
  4. 4.School of Population and Public HealthUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada
  5. 5.WorkSafe BCVancouverCanada
  6. 6.Institute for Work & HealthTorontoCanada

Section editors and affiliations

  • Marc D. Gellman
    • 1
  1. 1.Behavioral Medicine Research Center, Department of PsychologyUniversity of MiamiMiamiUSA