Dynamic reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton is essential for many cellular activities, such as cell shape changes, cell migration, cell adhesion, and cytokinesis. The Rho family small GTP-binding proteins (G proteins), including Cdc42, Rac, and Rho, regulate these actin cytoskeleton-dependent cellular activities (Takai et al. 2001; Hall 2005). In fibroblasts such as NIH 3T3 and Swiss 3T3 cells, Cdc42 regulates the formation of filopodia; Rac regulates the formation of lamellipodia and ruffles; and Rho regulates the formation of stress fibers and focal adhesions. Cdc42 and Rac activate the Arp2/3 complex through their respective target proteins, Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP)/neural (N-)WASP and WASP-family verprolin-homologous protein (WAVE) (Takenawa and Suetsugu 2007). The Arp2/3 complex interacts with the sides of preexisting actin filaments (F-actin) to promote actin polymerization and generate a branched F-actin network. Rho...
KeywordsMigration Neuropathy Oligomer NADPH Microbe
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