Encyclopedia of Signaling Molecules

Living Edition
| Editors: Sangdun Choi

CCAAT/Enhancer-Binding Protein Beta

  • Herman E. Popeijus
  • Sophie E. van der Krieken
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-6438-9_101550-1


Historical Background

The nuclear factor for IL-6 expression (NF-IL6) was discovered as a member of the CCAAT-enhancer binding proteins (C/EBP) in 1990, from which it derived its current name: C/EBP-β (Akira et al. 1990). C/EBP-β was first found to bind to an interleukin 1 (IL1) responsive element necessary for IL-6 expression (Akira et al. 1990). In general, C/EBP-β is thought to be an important transcription factor involved in immune responses, hematopoiesis, endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER-stress), adipogenesis, central nervous system (CNS) diseases, gluconeogenesis, liver regeneration, and embryogenesis. The C/EBP protein family consists of six members: C/EBP-α, -β, -δ, -ε, -γ, and -ζ (Gene names CEBPA, CEBPB, CEBPG, CEBPD, CEBPE, and CEBPZ, respectively). Each member belongs to the basic-leucine...


Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Clonal Expansion Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Cancer Cachexia 
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access


  1. Akira S, Isshiki H, Sugita T, Tanabe O, Kinoshita S, Nishio Y, et al. A nuclear factor for IL-6 expression (NF-IL6) is a member of a C/EBP family. EMBO J. 1990;9:1897–906.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Bai Y, Wei Y, Wu L, Wei J, Wang X, Bai Y. C/EBP beta mediates endoplasmic reticulum stress regulated inflammatory response and extracellular matrix degradation in LPS-stimulated human periodontal ligament cells. Int J Mol Sci. 2016;17:385. doi:10.3390/ijms17030385.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Bamberger AM, Makrigiannakis A, Schroder M, Bamberger CM, Relakis C, Gellersen B, et al. Expression pattern of the CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins C/EBP-alpha, C/EBP-beta and C/EBP-delta in the human placenta. Virchows Arch. 2004;444:149–52. doi:10.1007/s00428-003-0935-7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Brenner S, Bercovich Z, Feiler Y, Keshet R, Kahana C. Dual regulatory role of polyamines in adipogenesis. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:27384–92. doi:10.1074/jbc.M115.686980.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Chakrabarty A, Roberts MR. Ets-2 and C/EBP-beta are important mediators of ovine trophoblast Kunitz domain protein-1 gene expression in trophoblast. BMC Mol Biol. 2007;8:14. doi:10.1186/1471-2199-8-14.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Fu D, Lala-Tabbert N, Lee H, Wiper-Bergeron N. Mdm2 promotes myogenesis through the ubiquitination and degradation of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:10200–7. doi:10.1074/jbc.M115.638577.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Huber R, Pietsch D, Panterodt T, Brand K. Regulation of C/EBPbeta and resulting functions in cells of the monocytic lineage. Cell Signal. 2012;24:1287–96. doi:10.1016/j.cellsig.2012.02.007.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Juhas U, Ryba-Stanislawowska M, Szargiej P, Mysliwska J. Different pathways of macrophage activation and polarization. Postepy Hig Med Dosw (Online). 2015;69:496–502. doi:10.5604/17322693.1150133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Kalvakolanu DV, Gade P. IFNG and autophagy: a critical role for the ER-stress mediator ATF6 in controlling bacterial infections. Autophagy. 2012;8:1673–4. doi:10.4161/auto.21403.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Lala-Tabbert N, Fu D, Wiper-Bergeron N. Induction of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta expression with the phosphodiesterase inhibitor isobutylmethylxanthine improves myoblast engraftment into dystrophic muscle. Stem Cells Transl Med. 2016;5:500–10. doi:10.5966/sctm.2015-0169.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Marchildon F, Lala N, Li G, St-Louis C, Lamothe D, Keller C, et al. CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta is expressed in satellite cells and controls myogenesis. Stem Cells. 2012;30:2619–30. doi:10.1002/stem.1248.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Marchildon F, Lamarche E, Lala-Tabbert N, St-Louis C, Wiper-Bergeron N. Expression of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta in muscle satellite cells inhibits myogenesis in cancer cachexia. PLoS One. 2015;10:e0145583. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0145583.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Oh IH, Reddy EP. The myb gene family in cell growth, differentiation and apoptosis. Oncogene. 1999;18:3017–33. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1202839.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Podust LM, Krezel AM, Kim Y. Crystal structure of the CCAAT box/enhancer-binding protein beta activating transcription factor-4 basic leucine zipper heterodimer in the absence of DNA. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:505–13. doi:10.1074/jbc.M005594200.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Pulido-Salgado M, Vidal-Taboada JM, Saura J. C/EBPbeta and C/EBPdelta transcription factors: basic biology and roles in the CNS. Prog Neurobiol. 2015;132:1–33. doi:10.1016/j.pneurobio.2015.06.003.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Smink JJ, Leutz A. Instruction of mesenchymal cell fate by the transcription factor C/EBPbeta. Gene. 2012;497:10–7. doi:10.1016/j.gene.2012.01.043.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Su AI, Wiltshire T, Batalov S, Lapp H, Ching KA, Block D, et al. A gene atlas of the mouse and human protein-encoding transcriptomes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2004;101:6062–7. doi:10.1073/pnas.0400782101.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. Tahirov TH, Sato K, Ichikawa-Iwata E, Sasaki M, Inoue-Bungo T, Shiina M, et al. Mechanism of c-Myb-C/EBP beta cooperation from separated sites on a promoter. Cell. 2002;108:57–70.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Tsukada J, Yoshida Y, Kominato Y, Auron PE. The CCAAT/enhancer (C/EBP) family of basic-leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors is a multifaceted highly-regulated system for gene regulation. Cytokine. 2011;54:6–19. doi:10.1016/j.cyto.2010.12.019.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. van der Krieken SE, Popeijus HE, Mensink RP, Plat J. CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta in relation to ER stress, inflammation, and metabolic disturbances. Biomed Res Int. 2015;2015:324815. doi:10.1155/2015/324815.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. Xiong W, Hsieh CC, Kurtz AJ, Rabek JP, Papaconstantinou J. Regulation of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-beta isoform synthesis by alternative translational initiation at multiple AUG start sites. Nucleic Acids Res. 2001;29:3087–98.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media LLC 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Herman E. Popeijus
    • 1
  • Sophie E. van der Krieken
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Human BiologyMaastricht UniversityMaastrichtThe Netherlands