DNA Repair Polymerases
To cope with DNA damage, cellular organisms possess evolutionary conserved mechanisms to remove DNA lesions and restore the original genetic information. Most of these pathways require a resynthesis step during which the intact strand serves as a template in repairing the damaged one. Specialized enzymes called DNA polymerases catalyze this DNA synthesis. This review focuses on the role of the numerous prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA polymerases identified to date in the major DNA repair pathways: base excision repair (BER), nucleotide excision repair (NER), double-strand break repair (DSBR), cross-link repair (CLR), and mismatch repair (MMR).
The structure of DNA is constantly subjected to alteration from physical agents such as UV light and ionizing radiation or by chemicals found in the environment. In addition to the action of these exogenous agents, DNA is also damaged by a plethora of endogenous cellular metabolites such as those produced by hydrolysis,...
KeywordsNucleotide Excision Repair Base Excision Repair Base Excision Repair Pathway NHEJ Factor Base Excision Repair Intermediate
The authors wish to thank Prof Paul Boehmer for the critical reading of the manuscript. The authors deeply apologize to the too many colleagues they were unable to cite due to the space restriction.