Pattern Recognition Receptors: Evolution, Redundancy, and Cross Talk
Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) mediate identification of two classes of molecules. The first, pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), consists of evolutionarily conserved repeating patterns of molecular structures found on the surfaces of, or in the nucleic acid sequences of, related pathogenic microbes. The second, damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), consists of endogenous molecules released from stressed, injured, infected, or transformed human cells. PRRs reside on various cells (macrophages, neutrophils, dendritic, epithelial, endothelial, keratinocytes, etc.) or are secreted to act as sentinels in the bloodstream and lymph nodes and are compromised of three functionally distinct classes: endocytic, secreted, and signaling PRRs. Endocytic PRRs, found on the surface of phagocytes, recognize a range of carbohydrates. Secreted PRRs bind to microbial cell walls and facilitate their recognition by phagocytes or the complement pathways. Signaling PRRs...
KeywordsCarbohydrate Tuberculosis Interferon Microbe Mannose
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