Encyclopedia of Autism Spectrum Disorders

Living Edition
| Editors: Fred R. Volkmar


  • Nirit Bauminger-Zviely
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-6435-8_1824-3


Friendship is a type of social relationship appearing throughout the life span, from early childhood to old age. It is conceptualized under the social relationships approach (Hinde 1976), according to which relationships are developed through continuous dyadic interactions over long periods of time with a specific partner (a minimum of 6 months to denote friendship; Howes 1996), to extract a relationship model that goes beyond the influence of each member’s characteristics (Dunn 1993). Through friendship formation, children are “meshed” with each other to create a whole that is greater than the sum of its parts, and they share the properties and histories of their mutual interaction (Dunn 1993). The essence of friendship as a relationship is a mutual liking, whereby children reciprocate an affectionate bond of emotional closeness. Having friends is cardinal to children’s well-being and protects them from depression and loneliness, since friendship provides the child with a...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References and Readings

  1. American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders-text revision (4th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  2. Asher, S. R., Parker, J. G., & Walker, D. L. (1996). Distinguishing friendship from acceptance: Implications for intervention and assessment. In W. M. Bukowski, A. F. Newcomb, & W. W. Hartup (Eds.), The company they keep: Friendships in childhood and adolescence (pp. 366–406). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Attwood, T. (2004). Cognitive behaviour therapy for children and adults with Asperger’s syndrome. Behaviour Change, 21, 147–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baron-Cohen, S., & Wheelwright, S. (2003). The friendship questionnaire: An investigation of adults with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism, and normal sex differences. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 33, 509–517.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bauminger, N., & Kasari, C. (2000). Loneliness and friendship in high-functioning children with autism. Child Development, 71, 447–456.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bauminger, N., & Shulman, C. (2003). The development and maintenance of friendship in high-functioning children with autism: Maternal perception. Autism, the International Journal of Research and Practice, 7, 81–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bauminger, N., Shulman, C., & Agam, G. (2004). The link between the perception of self and of social relationships in high-functioning children with autism. Journal of Development and Physical Disabilities, 16, 193–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bauminger, N., Solomon, M., Aviezer, A., Heung, K., Brown, J., & Rogers, S. (2008a). Friendship in high-functioning children with ASD: Mixed and non-mixed dyads. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38, 1121–1229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bauminger, N., Solomon, M., Aviezer, A., Heung, K., Gazit, L., Brown, J., & Rogers, S. (2008b). Friendship manifestations, dyadic qualities of friendship, and friendship perception in high-functioning preadolescents with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 36, 135–150.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bauminger-Zviely, N., & Agam-Ben-Artzi, G. (2014). Young friendship in HFASD and typical development: Friend versus non-friend comparisons. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 44, 1733–1748.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Bauminger-Zviely, N., Karin, E., Kimhi, Y., & Agam Ben Artzi, G. (2014). Spontaneous peer conversation in preschoolers with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder versus typical development. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 55, 363–373.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bauminger-Zviely, N., Golan-Itshaky, A., & Tubul-Lavy, G. (2017). Speech acts during spontaneous peer conversation in preschoolers with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder versus typical development. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 47, 1380–1390.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Bukowski, W. M., Boivin, M., & Hoza, B. (1994). Measuring friendship quality during pre- and early adolescence: The development and psychometric properties of the friendship qualities scale. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 11, 471–484.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Carrington, S., Templeton, E., & Papinczak, T. (2003). Adolescents with Asperger syndrome and perceptions of friendship. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 18, 211–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cassidy, J. (2001). Truth, lies, and intimacy: An attachment perspective. Attachment & Human Development, 3, 121–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chamberlain, B., Kasari, C., & Rotheram-Fuller, E. (2007). Involvement or isolation? The social network of children with autism in regular classrooms. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37, 230–242.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Chang, Y. C., Shih, W., & Kasari, C. (2016). Friendships in preschool children with autism spectrum disorder: What holds them back, child characteristics or teacher behavior? Autism: The International Journal of Research and Practice, 20(1), 65–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Church, C., Alinsanski, S., & Amanullah, S. (2000). The social, behavioural, and academic experiences of children with Asperger syndrome. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 15, 12–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Daniel, L. S., & Billingsley, B. S. (2010). What boys with an Autism spectrum disorder say about establishing and maintaining friendships. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 25, 220–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dunn, J. (1993). Young children’s close relationships: Beyond attachment. London: SAGE.Google Scholar
  21. Frankel, F., & Myat, R. (2003). Children’s friendship training. New York: Taylor & Francis Books.Google Scholar
  22. Freeman, S. F., Gulsrud, A., & Kasari, C. (2015). Brief report: Linking early joint attention and play abilities to later reports of friendships for children with ASD. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 45(7), 2259–2266.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Hinde, R. A. (1976). On describing relationships. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 17, 1–19.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Hobson, P. (2005). Autism and emotion. In F. R. Volkmar, R. Paul, A. Klin, & D. Cohen (Eds.), Handbook of autism and pervasive developmental disorders (pp. 406–422). Hoboken: Wiley.Google Scholar
  25. Howes, C. (1983). Patterns of friendship. Child Development, 54, 1041–1053.Google Scholar
  26. Howes, C. (1996). The earliest friendships. In W. M. Bukowski, A. F. Newcomb, & W. W. Hartup (Eds.), The company they keep: Friendship in childhood and adolescence (pp. 66–86). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Howlin, P., Good, S., Hutton, J., & Rutter, M. (2004). Adult outcome for children with autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45, 212–229.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Jobe, L. E., & Williams-White, S. (2007). Loneliness, social relationships, and a broader autism phenotype in college students. Personality and Individual Differences, 42, 1479–1489.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kanner, L. (1943). Autistic disturbances of affective contact. The Nervous Child, 2, 217–250.Google Scholar
  30. Kasari, C., Locke, J., Gulsrud, A., & Rotheram-Fuller, E. (2011). Social networks and friendships at school: Comparing children with and without ASD. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 41(5), 533–544.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Kerns, K. A. (2000). Types of preschool friendships. Personal Relationships, 7, 311–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Koning, C., & Magill-Evans, J. (2001). Social and language skills in adolescent boys with Asperger syndrome. Autism, 5, 23–36.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Locke, J., Ishijima, E., Kasari, C., & London, N. (2010). Loneliness, friendship quality and the social networks of adolescents with high-functioning autism in an inclusive school setting. Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs, 10, 74–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Mazurek, M. O. (2014). Loneliness, friendship and well-being in adults with autism spectrum disorders. Autism, 18(3), 223–232.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Mendelson, J. L., Gates, J. A., & Lerner, M. D. (2016). Friendship in school-age boys with autism spectrum disorders: A meta-analytic summary and developmental, process-based model. Psychological Bulletin, 142(6), 601–622.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Orsmond, G., Krauss, M., & Seltzer, M. (2004). Peer relationships and social and recreational activities among adolescents and adults with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disabilities, 34, 245–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Park, K. A., & Waters, E. (1989). Security of attachment and preschool friendships. Child Development, 60, 1076–1081.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Parker, J. G., & Asher, S. R. (1993). Friendship and friendship quality in middle childhood: Links with peer group acceptance and feelings of loneliness and social dissatisfaction. Developmental Psychology, 29, 611–621.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Petrina, N., Carter, M., & Stephenson, J. (2015). Parental perception of the importance of friendship and other outcome priorities in children with autism spectrum disorder. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 30(1), 61–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Rotheram-Fuller, E., Kasari, C., Chamberlain, B., & Locke, J. (2010). Social involvement of children with autism spectrum disorders in elementary school classrooms. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 51, 1227–1234.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. Shulman, S. (1993). Close friendships in early and middle adolescence: Typology and friendship reasoning. In B. Laursen (Ed.), Close friendships in adolescence (pp. 55–71). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  42. Tager-Flusberg, H. (2001). A reexamination of the theory of mind hypothesis of autism. In J. Burack, T. Charman, N. Yirmiya, & P. Zelazo (Eds.), Development and autism: Perspectives from theory and research (pp. 173–193). Hillsdale: Erlbaum Press.Google Scholar
  43. Vitaro, F., Boivin, M., & Bukowski, W. M. (2009). The role of friendship in child and adolescents psychosocial development. In K. H. Rubin, W. M. Bukowski, & B. Laursen (Eds.), Handbook of peer interactions, relationships, and groups. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media LLC 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of EducationBar – Illan UniversityRamat-GanIsrael