Encyclopedia of Autism Spectrum Disorders

Living Edition
| Editors: Fred R. Volkmar


  • Pat WalshEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-6435-8_178-3


Broadly speaking, ethics is the philosophical study of how we ought to live and what kinds of people and societies we ought to be or become. While the term sometimes refers to the systematic study of reasoning about how we ought to act often called moral philosophy, ethics is also concerned with matters of the most fundamental practical import. Central among its questions are those to do with how, as individuals and societies, we ought to treat others, why we ought to treat them in that way, how we should evaluate the motives underlying actions, and our responsibility for the predictable consequences of our actions and policies. The various answers to questions of this sort often depend on different general viewpoints drawn from moral theories such as deontology or consequentialism or from various religious perspectives, all with their different metaethical and ontological assumptions. In addition to this philosophical input, reflection on many ethical issues, such as those...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References and Reading

  1. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed., text rev.). Arlington: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  2. Aspies for Freedom. (2010). Retrieved from http://www.aspiesforfreedom.com
  3. Autism Speaks. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.autismspeaks.org
  4. Barnbaum, D. R. (2008). The ethics of autism: Among them but not of them. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Baron-Cohen, S. (1995). Mindblindness: An essay on autism and theory of mind. Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  6. Baron-Cohen, S., Ashwin, E., Ashwin, C., Tavassoli, T., & Chakraborti, B. (2009). Talent in autism: Hypersystemizing, hyper-attention to detail and sensory hypersensitivity. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, 364, 1377–1383.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Coleman, M., & Gillberg, C. (2012). The autisms. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Crenshaw, K. (1991). Mapping the margins: Intersectionality, identity politics and violence against women of color. Stanford Law Review, 43, 1241–1299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Eagle, R. S. (2002). Accessing and assessing intelligence in individuals with low functioning autism. Journal on Developmental Disabilities, 9, 45.Google Scholar
  10. Frith, U. (1989). Autism: Explaining the enigma. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  11. Gardner, H. (1983). Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  12. Gould, S. J. (1996). The mismeasure of man. New York: W.W. Norton.Google Scholar
  13. Happe, F., Ronald, A., & Plomin, R. (2006). Time to give up on a single explanation for autism. Nature Neuroscience, 9, 1218–1220.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Hayman, R. L. (2000). The smart culture: Society, intelligence and law. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Matson, J., Dempsey, T., LoVullo, S., & Wilkins, J. (2008). The effects of intellectual functioning on the range of core symptoms of autism spectrum disorder. Research in Developmental Disorders, 29, 341–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. McGregor, E., Nunez, M., Cebula, K., & Gomez, J.-C. (Eds.). (2008). Autism: An integrated view from neurocognitive, clinical and intervention research. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing/E. L. Hill.Google Scholar
  17. Medical Research Council of Great Britain. (2010). MRC autism forward look and review. Retrieved from http://www.mrc.ac.uk/Utilities/Documentrecord/index.htm?d=MRC007354
  18. Nadeson, M. H. (2005). Constructing Autism: Unravelling the ‘Truth’ and Understanding the Social. Routledge.Google Scholar
  19. National Institute of Mental Health. (2008). NIMH strategic plan. Retrieved from http://www.nimh.gov/about/strategic-planning-reports/index.shtml
  20. Nussbaum, M. (2006). Frontiers of justice: Disability, nationality, species membership. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Ortega, F. (2009). The cerebral subject and the challenge of neurodiversity. BioSocieties, 4, 425–445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Savulescu, J., & Kahane, G. (2009). The moral obligation to create children with the best chance of the best life. Bioethics, 23, 274–290.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Smukler, D. (2005). Unauthorised minds: How “theory of mind” theory misrepresents autism. Mental Retardation, 43, 11–24.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Sparrow, R. (2008). Genes, identity and the expressivist critique. In L. Skene & J. Thompson (Eds.), The sorting society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  25. The Autistic Self Advocacy Network (ASAN) Position Statements. (2017). Retrieved from http://www.autisticadvocacy.org
  26. Timimi, S., Gardner, N., & McCabe, B. (2011). The myth of autism. London: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Verhoeff, B. (2012). What is this thing called autism? A critical analysis of the tenacious search for autism’s essence. BioSocieties, 7, 410–432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Volkmar, F. R., State, M., & Klin, A. (2009). Autism and autism spectrum disorders: Diagnostic issues for the coming decade. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 50, 108–115.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Walsh, P. (2010). Asperger syndrome and the supposed obligation not to bring disabled lives into the world. Journal of Medical Ethics, 36, 521–524.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Walsh, P., Elsabbagh, M., Bolton, P., & Singh, I. (2011). In search of biomarkers for autism: Scientific, social and ethical challenges. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 12, 603–612.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Wellman, H. R., Cross, D., & Watson, J. (2001). Meta-analysis of theory of mind development: The truth about false belief. Child Development, 72, 655–684.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Wing, L. (1981). Language, social and cognitive impairments in autism and severe mental retardation. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 11(1), 31–44.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Wing, L., & Gould, J. (1979). Severe impairments of social interaction and associated abnormalities in children: Epidemiology and classification. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 9, 11–29.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. World Health Organisation. (2010). International classification of diseases (ICD-10). Geneva: World Health Organisation.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media LLC 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre of Medical Law and Ethics, Dickson Poon School of Law, Somerset House East WingKings College LondonLondonUK