Encyclopedia of Autism Spectrum Disorders

Living Edition
| Editors: Fred R. Volkmar


  • Elizabeth R. EernisseEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-6435-8_1715-3



Articulation is a general term that refers to the act of producing speech sounds in the vocal tract (i.e., the movement and sequencing of physical structures including the lips, tongue, teeth, jaw, etc.). Speech sounds are often classified based on either the place of articulation (i.e., the physical structures that are involved and where the point of contact occurs between structures) or the manner of articulation (i.e., the amount/type of restriction of airflow involved).

See Also

References and Reading

  1. American-Speech-Language-Hearing-Association. (n.d.). What is language? What is speech? In Typical speech and language development. Retrieved April 25, 2011, from http://www.asha.org/public/speech/development/language_speech.htm
  2. Bowen, C. (1998). Children’s speech sound disorders: Questions and answers. Retrieved April 25, 2011, from http://www.speech-language-therapy.com/phonol-and-artic.htm
  3. Crystal, D. (1991). A dictionary of linguistics and phonetics (3rd ed.). Cambridge, MA: Basil Blackwell.Google Scholar
  4. Ladefoged, P., & Maddieson, I. (1996). The sounds of the world’s languages. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  5. Zemlin, W. R. (1998). Speech and hearing science: Anatomy and physiology (4th ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Language and LiteracyCardinal Stritch UniversityMilwaukeeUSA