Nigeria and Autism
Nigeria, also known as the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a country located in the West African subregion bordered by the Republic of Benin in the West, Chad and Cameroon in the East, and the Niger Republic in the North. The Nigerian coast in the South lies on the Gulf of Guinea on the Atlantic Ocean. Nigeria is a country with over 250 ethnic groups, but the three major traditional groups are the Hausa-Fulani, the Yoruba, and the Igbo. Geopolitically, the country consists of 6 regions or zones, 36 states, and a Federal Capital Territory located in Abuja.
There is growing momentum recognizing autism spectrum disorder (ASD) globally and advocating for the needs and rights of children in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) (Munir et al. 2016). In 2010, there were approximately 52 million people living with ASD worldwide (Elsabbagh et al. 2012; Baxter et al. 2015). Whereas in the United States, ASD is recognized to affect 1 in every 68 children (1 in 42 boys and 1 in 189...
We acknowledge the support, in part, of the Grand Challenges Canada Project Grant (MOB, KM) and the Fogarty/NIMH D43 grant TW009680 from the National Institutes of Health (KM).
References and Reading
- AbdulQadir, I.A., & Chiranchi, H.M.D. (2017). The Almajiri system of education in Nigeria today. http://www.gamji.com/article5000/NEWS5956.htm. Accessed 18 Oct 2017.
- African Network for the Prevention and Protection against Child Abuse and Neglect (ANPPCAN), Nigeria Chapter. (2007). Communique on a project to increase the level of awareness on autism and develop a mechanism for care and support of children with autism in Enugu State, South-Eastern Nigeria.Google Scholar
- Bakare, M. O., & Munir, K. M. (2011a). Excess of non-verbal cases of autism spectrum disorders presenting to orthodox clinical practice in Africa – A trend possibly resulting from late diagnosis and intervention. South African Journal of Psychiatry, 17(4), 118–120.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Bakare, M.O., & Munir, K.M. (2011c). Autism spectrum disorders in Africa. In Mohammad-Reza Mohammadi (Ed.), A comprehensive book on autism spectrum disorders. InTech. ISBN: 978-953-307-494-8. Available from: http://www.intechopen.com/books/a-comprehensive-book-on-autism-spectrumdisorders/autism-spectrum-disorders-in-africa. Accessed 18 Oct 2017.
- Bakare, M. O., Ebigbo, P. O., Agomoh, A. O., & Menkiti, N. C. (2008). Knowledge about childhood autism among health workers (KCAHW) questionnaire: Description, reliability and internal consistency. Clinical Practice & Epidemiology in Mental Health, 4, 17. https://doi.org/10.1186/1745-0179-4-17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Bakare, M. O., Ebigbo, P. O., Agomoh, A. O., Eaton, J., Onyeama, G. M., Okonkwo, K. O., Onwukwe, J. U., Igwe, M. N., Orovwigho, A. O., & Aguocha, C. M. (2009a). Knowledge about childhood autism and opinion among healthcare workers on availability of facilities and law caring for the needs and rights of children with childhood autism and other developmental disorders in Nigeria. BMC Pediatrics, 9, 12. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2431-9-12.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Bakare, M. O., Agomoh, A. O., Ebigbo, P. O., Eaton, J., Okonkwo, K. O., Onwukwe, J. U., & Onyeama, G. M. (2009b). Etiological explanation, treatability and preventability of childhood autism: A survey of Nigerian healthcare workers’ opinion. Annals of General Psychiatry, 8, 6. https://doi.org/10.1186/1744-859X-8-6.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Bakare, M. O., Igwe, M. N., Odinka, P. C., & Iteke, O. (2011b). Neuropsychiatric diagnosis and psychotropic medication prescription patterns in a mental hospital-based child and adolescent psychiatric service in Nigeria. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 22(3), 751–755. https://doi.org/10.1353/hpu.2011.0078.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bakare, M. O., Ebigbo, P. O., & Ubochi, V. N. (2012). Prevalence of autism spectrum disorder among Nigerian children with intellectual disability: A stopgap assessment. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 23(2), 513–518. https://doi.org/10.1353/hpu.2012.0056.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bakare, M.O., Munir, K.M., Bello-Mojeed, M.A. (2014). Public health and research funding for childhood neurodevelopmental disorders in Sub-Saharan Africa: A time to balance priorities. Healthcare in Low-Resource Settings, 2(1). pii: 2014.1559.Google Scholar
- Bakare, M. O., Tunde-Ayinmode, M. F., Adewuya, A. O., Bello-Mojeed, M. A., Sale, S., James, B. O., Yunusa, M. A., Obindo, J. T., Igwe, M. N., Odinka, P. C., Okafor, C. J., Oshodi, Y. O., Okonoda, K. M., Munir, K. M., & Orovwigho, A. O. (2015). Recognition of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) symptoms and knowledge about some other aspects of ASD among final year medical students in Nigeria, Sub-Saharan Africa. BMC Research Notes, 8, 454. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13104-015-1433-0.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Bakare, M. O., Bello-Mojeed, Munir, K. M., Ogun, O. C., & Eaton, J. (2016). Neurodevelopmental delay among children under the age of three years at immunization clinics in Lagos State, Nigeria – Preliminary report. Scientific Reports, 6, 25175. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep25175.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Bello-Mojeed, M. A., & Bakare, M. O. (2013). Improving treatment of children with autism spectrum disorder in low- and middle-income countries: The role of non-specialist care providers. PLoS Medicine, 10(12), e1001573. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001573.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Bello-Mojeed, M.A., Bakare, M.O., & Munir, K. (2013). Identification of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) in Africa; need for shifting research and public health focus; comprehensive guide to autism. http://www.springerreference.com/docs/html/chapterdbid/331260.html. Accessed 18 Oct 2017.
- Bello-Mojeed, M., Ani, C., Lagunju, I., & Omigbodun, O. (2016). Feasibility of parent-mediated behavioural intervention for behavioural problems in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Nigeria: A pilot study. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, 10(1), 28. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13034-016-0117-4.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Bello-Mojeed, M. A., Omigbodun, O. O., Bakare, M. O., & Adewuya, A. O. (2017). Pattern of impairments and late diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder among a sub-Saharan African clinical population of children in Nigeria. Global Mental Health (Cambridge), 4, e5. https://doi.org/10.1017/gmh.2016.30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2016). Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), data & statistics. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/autism/data.html.
- Chinawa, J. M., Manyike, P. C., Aniwada, E. C., Chinawa, A. T., Obu, H. A., Odetunde, O. I., Nwokocha, A. R., & Ibekwe, R. R. (2016). Prevalence and socioeconomic correlates of autism among children attending primary and secondary schools in south east Nigeria. African Health Sciences, 16(4), 936–942. https://doi.org/10.4314/ahs.v16i4.8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Christensen, D. L., Baio, J., Braun, K. V., Bilder, D., Charles, J., Constantino, J. N., et al. (2016). Prevalence and characteristics of autism spectrum disorder among children aged 8 years – Autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network, 11 sites, United States, 2012. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Surveillance Summaries, 65(3), 1–23.Google Scholar
- Eseigbe, E. E., Nuhu, F. T., Sheikh, T. L., Eseigbe, P., Sanni, K. A., & Olisah, V. O. (2015). Knowledge of childhood autism and challenges of management among medical doctors in Kaduna State, Northwest Nigeria. Autism Research and Treatment, 2015, 892301. https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/892301.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Ezegwui, I. R., Lawrence, L., Aghaji, A. E., Okoye, O. I., Okoye, O., Onwasigwe, E. N., & Ebigbo, P. O. (2014). Refractive errors in children with autism in a developing country. Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice, 17(4), 467–470. https://doi.org/10.4103/1119-3077.134042.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fuentes, J., Bakare, M., Munir, K., Aguayo, P., Gaddour, N., Öner, Ö., & Mercadante, M. (2012). Autism spectrum disorders. In J. M. Rey (Ed.), IACAPAP e-textbook of child and adolescent mental health. Geneva: International Association for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Allied Professions.Google Scholar
- Igwe, M. N., Bakare, M. O., Agomoh, A. O., Onyeama, G. M., & Okonkwo, K. O. (2010). Factors influencing knowledge about childhood autism among final year undergraduate medical, nursing and psychology students of University of Nigeria, Enugu State, Nigeria. Italian Journal of Pediatrics, 36, 44. https://doi.org/10.1186/1824-7288-36-44.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Igwe, M. N., Ahanotu, A. C., Bakare, M. O., Achor, J. U., & Igwe, C. (2011). Assessment of knowledge about childhood autism among paediatric and psychiatric nurses in Ebonyi state, Nigeria. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, 5(1), 1. https://doi.org/10.1186/1753-2000-5-1.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Kanner, L. (1943). Autistic disturbances of affective contact. The Nervous Child, 2, 217.Google Scholar
- Longe, C.I., & Asuni, T. (1972). Four cases of infantile autism in Nigerian children; paper read at Third Pan African Psychiatric Conference, Khartoum. 1972.Google Scholar
- Munir, K. M., Lavelle, T. A., Helm, D. T., Thompson, D., Prestt, J., & Azeem, M. W. (2016). Autism: A global framework for action. Doha: World Innovation Summit for Health. http://www.wish-qatar.org/wish-2016/forum-reports/forum-reports.Google Scholar
- Onuora, A. B. (1993). Infantile autism: a case report. Nigerian Journal of Psychiatry, 1(3), 169–171.Google Scholar
- Oshodi, Y. O., Olagunju, A. T., Oyelohunnu, M. A., Campbell, E. A., Umeh, C. S., Aina, O. F., Oyibo, W., Lesi, F. E., & Adeyemi, J. D. (2017). Autism Spectrum disorder in a community-based sample with neurodevelopmental problems in Lagos, Nigeria. The Journal of Public Health in Africa, 7(2), 559. https://doi.org/10.4081/jphia.2016.559.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Population Reference Bureau. World population data sheet Washington, DC. (2015). Available from: http://www.prb.org/pdf15/2015-world-population-data-sheet_eng.pdf.
- Stepping Stones, Nigeria. (2010). Witchcraft stigmatisation and children’s rights in Nigeria – Report prepared for the 54th Session of the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child Geneva, May 2010. https://www.google.com.ng/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0ahUKEwjZvbHq3fzWAhXL1RQKHUTxDtYQFgglMAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.crin.org%2Fen%2Fdocs%2FUNCRC%2520Shadow%2520Report%2520SSN%2520FINAL%25 20171209.doc&usg=AOvVaw3Ii5jsUp2gZkEwtS1l-Tup. Accessed 18 Oct 2017.
- UNICEF, Nigeria. (2017). Child protection – The situation. https://www.unicef.org/nigeria/protection.html. Accessed 18 Oct 2017.