Encyclopedia of Autism Spectrum Disorders

Living Edition
| Editors: Fred R. Volkmar

Chile and Autism

  • Patricio Fischman
  • Sonja Ziegler
  • Daniela Han
  • Ronit Fischman
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-6435-8_102024-1

Historical Background

The first initiatives providing help for individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder(ASD) in Chile were, as it is usually the case, spearheaded by parents of autistic children, whose initiatives founded many organizations that provide services to this day. The largest national support organization, ASPAUT, or the Chilean Association of Parents and Friends of Autistics, was founded in 1983 in Santiago. Today, the nonprofit organization has branches in five of Chile’s 15 regions, with 1,400 members nationwide. Its services include four schools, five family support groups, and one vocational training center. Though each location is associated by name, each operates as an independent entity.

Legal Issues, Mandates for Services

The department of special education of the Ministry of Education indicates that in 2009, 589 students diagnosed with autism were receiving educational services under the law Decreto Supremo N° 815/1990which guarantees special education services...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.



The authors of this study acknowledge that during its preparation for publication, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition. (American Psychiatric Association 2013) was published, and acknowledge that under these new diagnostic guidelines, the definition of Autism and ASD has changed. However, the authors also acknowledge that when changes occur, the utilization of new diagnostic guidelines is a scientific and cultural process for both professionals and patients. Thusly, the authors chose to present the study’s data as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th Edition, Text Revision (American Psychiatric Association 2000).

References and Reading

  1. American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author. Text Revision.Google Scholar
  2. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  3. de Salud, M. (2011). Guía de Práctica Clínica de Detección y Diagnóstico Oportuno de los Trastornos del Espectro Autista (TEA) [Practical clinical guide the timely detection and diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders (ASD)]. Santiago, Chile: MINSAL.Google Scholar
  4. Flora de la Barra, M. (1995). Aspectos Biológicos del Autismo [Biological aspects of Autism]. La Revista Chilena de Neuropsiquiatría, 33, 361–365.Google Scholar
  5. Flora de la Barra, M., Skoknic, V., Allicnde, A., Raimann, E., Cortes, F., & Lacassic, Y. (1986). Autism and mental retardation associated with (7;20) balanced chromosomal translocation in a pair of female twins. La Revista Chilena de Pediatría, 57, 549–554.Google Scholar
  6. Gobierno de Chile. (2013). Ministros. Retrieved August 29, 2013 from http://www.gob.cl/ministros/
  7. Higuerra, M. (2010). Biological treatments of Autism, elimination diets: A critical review. La Revista Chilena de Pediatría, 81, 204–214. Lit review.Google Scholar
  8. Irarrázaval, M. E., Brokering, W., & Murillo, G. (2005). Autismo: An adult psychiatry perspective. La Revista Chilena de Neuropsiquiatría, 43, 51–60.Google Scholar
  9. Ministerio de Educación. (2009). Unidad de Educación Especial. Guía de Apoyo Técnico- Pedagógico: Necesidades Educativas Especiales en el Nivel de Educación Parvularia Asociadas al Autismo [Technical- pedagogical support guide: Special educational needs on the kindergarden educational level associated with autism] (1st ed.) Santiago, Chile: Author.Google Scholar
  10. Ministerio de Educación. (2010). Unidad de Educación Especial. Manual de Apoyo a Docentes: Educación de Estudiantes que Presentan con Trastornos del Espectro Autista [Support manual for teachers: Education for students that present with an autism spectrum syndrome] (1st ed.) Santiago, Chile: Author.Google Scholar
  11. Ministerio de Educación. (2013). Unidad de Educación Especial. Directorio de Establecimientos. Retrieved May 16, 2013 from http://www.educacionespecial.mineduc.cl/index2.php?id_portal=20&id_seccion=2543&id_contenido=23559. Excel document “Escuelas Especiales”. [Special Education Schools]. Excel document “Escuelas con Programa de Intergración Escolar”. [Public Schools with an Educational Intergration Program].
  12. Ministerio de Salud. (2010). Acceso Universal Garantías Explícitas [Explicit guarantees of universal access]. Chile: Minsal. Retrieved May 27, 2017 from http://www.minsal.gob.cl/portal/url/page/minsalcl/g_gesauge/presentacion.html
  13. Morales, M., Martínez, R., & Valdés, A. (1995). Un modelo de acción con un miembro autista. A model of action with an autistic family member]. La Revista Chilena de Psiquiatría. 1, 26–33. Chile.Google Scholar
  14. Office of Autism Research Coordination. (OARC), National Institute of Mental Health and Thomson Reuters, Inc. on behalf of the Interagency Autism Coordinating Committee (IACC). IACC/OARC autism spectrum disorder research publications analysis report: The global landscape of autism research. July 2012. Retrieved May 23, 2013 from the Department of Health and Human Services Interagency Autism Coordinating Committee website: http://iacc.hhs.gov/publications-analysis/july2012/index.shtml
  15. Quijada, C. (2008). Espectro Autista [Autism spectrum]. La Revista Chilena de Pediatría., 79, 86–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. World Health Organization. (2010). Chile. Retrieved May 27, 2013 from http://apps.who.int/gho/data/view.country.6300
  17. Zwaigenbaum, L., Bryson, S., & Garon, N. (2013). Early identification of autism spectrum disorders. Behavioral Brain Research. Retrieved May 27, 2013 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23588272

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Patricio Fischman
    • 1
    • 2
  • Sonja Ziegler
    • 3
  • Daniela Han
    • 2
  • Ronit Fischman
    • 4
  1. 1.Yale University Child Study CenterNew HavenUSA
  2. 2.Private PracticeSantiagoChile
  3. 3.Marcus Autism Center, Emory UniversityAtlantaUSA
  4. 4.Child and Adolescent Psychologist, Private PracticeSantiagoChile