Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection

Living reference work entry


Congenital cytomegalovirus infection is the most common congenital infection in neonates in the USA, affecting approximately 0.5–1.5 % of all live births and 30,000–40,000 newborns annually. Congenital infections result from transplacental transmission of cytomegalovirus (CMV).


Amniotic Fluid Sensorineural Hearing Loss Congenital Infection Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection Chorioretinal Scar 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Amir, J, Atias, J., Linder, N., et al. (2016). Follow-up of infants with congenital cytomegalovirus and normal fetal imaging. Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition, January 18. F1-F5. [Epub ahead of print].Google Scholar
  2. Averill, L. W., Kandula, V. V. R., Akyol, Y., et al. (2015). Fetal brain magnetic resonance imaging findings in congenital cytomegalovirus infection with postnatal imaging correlation. Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MRI, 36, 476–486.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bale, J. F. (2010). Screening newborns for congenital cytomegalovirus infection (Editorial). JAMA, 303, 1425–1426.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bale, J. F., Jr., Blackman, J. A., & Sato, Y. (1990). Outcome in children with symptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus infection. Journal of Child Neurology, 5, 131–136.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Beksaç, M. S., Saygan-Karamürsel, B., Ustaçelebi, S., et al. (2001). Prenatal diagnosis of intrauterine cytomegalovirus infection in a fetus with non-immune hydrops fetalis. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, 80, 762–765.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bodéus, M., Hubinont, C., Bernard, P., et al. (1999). Prenatal diagnosis of human cytomegalovirus by culture and polymerase chain reaction: 98 pregnancies leading to congenital infection. Prenatal Diagnosis, 19, 314–317.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bonalumi, S., Trapanese, A., Santamaria, A., et al. (2011). Cytomegalovirus infection in pregnancy: Review of the literature. Journal of Prenatal Medicine, 5, 1–8.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Boppana, S. B., Pass, R. F., Britt, W. J., et al. (1992). Symptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus infection: Neonatal morbidity and mortality. The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, 11, 93–99.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Boppana, S. B., Fowler, K. B., Vaid, Y., et al. (1997). Neuroradiographic findings in the newborn period and long-term outcome in children with symptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus infection. Pediatrics, 99, 409–414.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Boppana, S. B., Ross, S. A., Novak, Z., et al. (2010). Dried blood spot real-time polymerase chain reaction assays to screen newborns for congenital cytomegalovirus infection. JAMA, 303, 1375–1382.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Brown, H. L., & Abernathy, M. P. (1998). Cytomegalovirus infection. Seminars in Perinatology, 22, 260–266.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Byrne, P. J., Silver, M. M., Gilbert, J. M., et al. (1987). Cyclopia and congenital cytomegalovirus infection. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 28, 61–65.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Cheeran, M. C.-J., Lokensgard, J. R., & Schleiss, M. R. (2009). Neuropathogenesis of congenital cytomegalovirus infection: Disease mechanisms and prospects for intervention. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 22, 99–126.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Coats, D. K., Demmler, G. J., Paysse, E. A., et al. (2000). Ophthalmologic findings in children with congenital cytomegalovirus infection. American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, 4, 110–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Crino, J. P. (1999). Ultrasound and fetal diagnosis of perinatal infection. Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology, 42, 71–80.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Del Pizzo, J. (2011). Congenital infections (TORCH). Pediatrics in Review, 32, 537–542.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Desveaux, C., Klein, J., Leruez-Ville, M., et al. (2016). Identification of symptomatic fetuses infected with cytomegalovirus using amniotic fluid peptide biomarkers. PLoS Pathogens, 12, 1–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Doneda, C., Parazzini, C., Righini, A., et al. (2010). Early cerebral lesions in cytomegalovirus infection: Prenatal MR imaging. Radiology, 255, 613–621.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Enders, G., Bäder, U., Lindemann, L., et al. (2001). Prenatal diagnosis of congenital cytomegalovirus infection in 189 pregnancies with known outcome. Prenatal Diagnosis, 21, 362–377.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Fowler, K. B., McCollister, F. P., Dahle, A. J., et al. (1997). Progressive and fluctuating sensorineural hearing loss in children with asymptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus infection. Journal of Pediatrics, 130, 624–630.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Goderis, J., De Leenheer, E. D., Smets, K., et al. (2014). Hearing loss and congenital CMV infection: A systematic review. Pediatrics, 134, 972–982.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Griffiths, P., Baraniak, I., & Reeves, M. (2015). The pathogenesis of human cytomegalovirus. Journal of Pathology, 235, 288–297.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Guerra, B., Lazzarotto, T., Quarta, S., et al. (2000). Prenatal diagnosis of symptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus infection. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 183, 476–482.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Hicks, T., Fowler, K., Richardson, M., et al. (1993). Congenital cytomegalovirus infection and neonatal auditory screening. Journal of Pediatrics, 123, 779–782.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Istas, A. S., Demmler, G. J., Dobbins, J. G., et al. (1995). Surveillance for congenital cytomegalovirus disease: A report from the National Congenital Cytomegalovirus Disease registry. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 20, 665–670.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Joseph, A., Mahida, N., Irving, W., et al. (2013). Congenital cytomegalovirus infection. Paediatrics and Child Health, 24, 255–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lazzarotto, T., Varani, S., Guerra, B., et al. (2000). Prenatal indicators of congenital cytomegalovirus infection. Journal of Pediatrics, 137, 90–95.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Liesnard, C., Donner, C., Brancart, F., et al. (2000). Prenatal diagnosis of congenital cytomegalovirus infection: Prospective study of 237 pregnancies at risk. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 95, 881–888.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Lipitz, S., Achiron, R., Zalel, Y., et al. (2002). Outcome of pregnancies with vertical transmission of primary cytomegalovirus infection. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 100, 428–433.Google Scholar
  30. Malinger, G., Lev, D., Zahalka, N., et al. (2003). Fetal cytomegalovirus infection of the brain: The spectrum of sonographic findings. AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology, 24, 28–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Malinger, G., Lev, D., & Lerman-Sagie, T. (2011). Imaging of fetal cytomegalovirus infection. Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy, 29, 117–126.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Mestas, E. (2016). Congenital cytomegalovirus. Advances in Neonatal Care, 16, 60–65.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Metz, M. B. (2001). Eye manifestations of intrauterine infections. Ophthalmology Clinics of North America, 14, 521–531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Naing, Z. W., Scott, G. M., Shand, A., et al. (2016). Congenital cytomegalovirus infection in pregnancy: A review of prevalence, clinical features, diagnosis and prevention. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 56, 9–18.Google Scholar
  35. Noyola, D. E., Demmler, G. J., Griesser, C., et al. (2001). Early predictors of neurodevelopmental outcome in symptomatic. Journal of Pediatrics, 138, 325–331.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Pass, R. F. (2002). Cytomegalovirus infection. Pediatrics in Review, 23, 163–169.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Pass, R. F., Zhang, C., Evans, A., et al. (2009). Vaccine prevention of maternal cytomegalovirus infection. The New England Journal of Medicine, 360, 1191–1199.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. Perlman, J. M., & Argyle, C. (1992). Lethal cytomegalovirus infection in preterm infants: Clinical, radiological, and neuropathological findings. Annals of Neurology, 31, 64–68.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Plosa, E. J., Esbenshade, J. C., Fuller, M. P., et al. (2012). Cytomegalovirus infection. Pediatrics in Review, 33, 156–163.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Roach, E. S., Sumner, T. E., Volverg, F. M., et al. (1983). Radiological case of the month. American Journal of Diseases of Children, 137, 799.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Schleiss, M. R. (2008). Congenital cytomegalovirus infection: Update on management strategies. Current Treatment Options in Neurology, 10, 186–192.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. Sharon, B., & Schleiss, M. R. (2007). Congenital cytomegalovirus infection: An unrecognized epidemic. Infections in Medicine, 24, 402–415.Google Scholar
  43. Stagno, S., Pass, R. F., Dworsky, M. E., et al. (1982). Congenital cytomegalovirus infection: The relative importance of primary and recurrent maternal infection. The New England Journal of Medicine, 306, 945–949.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Stagno, S., Pass, R. F., Cloud, G., et al. (1986). Primary cytomegalovirus infection in pregnancy. Incidence, transmission to fetus and clinical outcome. JAMA, 256, 1904–1908.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Medical GeneticsShriners Hospitals for ChildrenShreveportUSA
  2. 2.Perinatal and Clinical Genetics, Department of PediatricsLSU Health Sciences CenterShreveportUSA

Personalised recommendations