Encyclopedia of Metagenomics

Living Edition
| Editors: Karen E. Nelson

Microbial Diversity and Novelty Along Salinity Gradients

  • Emilio Ortega Casamayor
  • Xavier Triadó-Margarit
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-6418-1_805-1



Microbial diversity is determined by the genetic diversity of ribosomal genes 16S for bacteria and archaea and 18S for protists. Microbial novelty indicates the uniqueness of the identity level of a given sequence based on BLAST search comparison against the ribosomal gene sequences previously reported in GenBank (usually <97% identity). The gradient of saline concentrations explored here ranged c. 20 times from 20 up to 370 g/L, when NaCl precipitates.


Coastal salterns and inland salt lakes are widely distributed ecosystems around the world. In the Mediterranean region, there has been a long tradition to use solar saltern systems for salt production in seawater evaporation ponds. Multipond solar salterns are semi-artificial coastal systems designed to harvest common salt (NaCl) from seawater. Sequential precipitation of CaCO 3 and CaSO 4occurs during the first stages of...


Salinity Gradient Anoxic Basin High Novelty Crystallizer Pond Heterotrophic Prokaryote 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Benlloch S, López-López A, Casamayor EO, et al. Prokaryotic genetic diversity throughout the salinity gradient of a coastal solar saltern. Environ Microbiol. 2002;4:349–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Casamayor EO, Massana R, Benlloch S, et al. Changes in archaeal, bacterial and eukaryal assemblages along a salinity gradient by comparison of genetic fingerprinting methods in a multi-pond solar saltern. Environ Microbiol. 2002;4:338–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Casamayor EO, Triadó-Margarit X, Castañeda C. Microbial biodiversity in saline shallow lakes of the Monegros Desert, Spain. FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2013;85:503–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Demergasso C, Casamayor EO, Galleguillos P, et al. Distribution of prokaryotic genetic diversity in athalassohaline lakes from the Atacama Desert, Northern Chile. FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2004;48:57–69.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Demergasso C, Escudero L, Casamayor EO, et al. Novelty and spatio-temporal heterogeneity in the bacterial diversity of hypersaline Lake Tebenquiche (Salar de Atacama). Extremophiles. 2008;12:491–504.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Estrada M, Hendriksen P, Gasol JM, et al. Diversity of planktonic photoautotrophic microorganisms along a salinity gradient as depicted by microscopy, flow cytometry, pigment analysis and DNA-based methods. FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2004;49:281–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Gasol JM, Casamayor EO, Join I, et al. Control of heterotrophic prokaryotic abundance and growth rate in hypersaline planktonic environments. Aquat Microb Ecol. 2004;34:193–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Guixa-Boixereu N, Calderón-Paz JI, Heldal M, et al. Viral lysis and bacterivory as prokaryotic loss factors along a salinity gradient. Aquat Microb Ecol. 1996;11:215–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Oren A. Halophilic microorganisms and their environments. Dordrecht: Kluwer, Scientific Publishers; 2002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Triadó-Margarit X, Casamayor EO. High genetic diversity and high novelty in planktonic protists inhabiting inland and coastal high salinity water bodies. FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2013;85:27–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Williams WD. The largest, highest and lowest lakes of the world: saline lakes. Verh Internat Verein Limnol. 1996;26:61–79.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Emilio Ortega Casamayor
    • 1
  • Xavier Triadó-Margarit
    • 1
  1. 1.Biodiversity & Biogeodynamics GroupCenter for Advanced Studies of Blanes-Spanish Council for Research, CEAB-CSICGironaSpain