Mammoth and Woolly Rhinoceros, Metagenomics of
Metagenomics is the study of metagenome, a composite of the animal genes and genes present in the genomes of microorganisms colonizing their bodies. More narrow definition of the term metagenome is limited to genomes of only microbial community (microbiome).
The subject of this entry is to outline the information available on the composition of the gut microbiomes of two extinct herbivorous animals – woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) and woolly rhinoceros (Coelodonta antiquitatis). The microbiome of an intestinal tract plays important role in the animal nutrition and overall health. In particular, herbivores have evolved to maintain microbial consortia that coordinate relatively rapid rates of degradation of complex plant carbohydrates under anaerobic conditions (Flint 1997). The coevolution of herbivorous mammalian lineages and their gut microbes involved enlargement of the foregut or hindgut to...
KeywordsMicrobial Community Taxonomic Assignment Cellulolytic Bacterium Intestinal Microbiomes Clostridium Beijerinckii
- Cousin MA. Presence and activity of psychrotrophic microorganisms in milk and dairy products: a review. J Food Prot. 1982;45:172–207.Google Scholar
- Field EK, D’Imperio S, Miller AR, Van Engelen MR, Gerlach R, Lee BD, Apel WA, Peyton BM. Application of molecular techniques to elucidate the influence of cellulosic waste on the bacterial community structure at a simulated low-level-radioactive-waste site. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2010;76:3106–15.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Miller W, Drautz DI, Ratan A, Pusey B, Qi J, Lesk AM, Tomsho LP, Packard MD, Zhao F, Sher A, Tikhonov A, Raney B, Patterson N, Lindblad-Toh K, Lander ES, Knight JR, Irzyk GP, Fredrikson KM, Harkins TT, Sheridan S, Pringle T, Schuster SC. Sequencing the nuclear genome of the extinct woolly mammoth. Nature. 2008;456:387–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Van Geel B, Fisher DC, Rountrey AN, Van Arkel J, Duivenvoorden JF, Nieman AM, Van Reenen GBA, Tikhonov AN, Buiguese B, Gravendeel B. Palaeo-environmental and dietary analysis of intestinal contents of a mammoth calf (Yamal Peninsula, northwest Siberia). Quat Sci Rev. 2011;30:3935–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar