The application of metagenomic approaches unraveled the abundance of microbes in different zones of glaciers derived from worldwide locations. Glacier microbes bear a great potential for the discovery of novel cold-adapted enzymes. Next-generation sequencing sheds light on structure and metabolism of glacial ice microbial communities.
Over 75 % of the Earth’s biosphere is constantly exposed to temperatures below 5 °C. Permanently cold ecosystems include polar regions, deep sea, high mountains, glaciers, man-made refrigeration systems, caves, and the upper atmosphere. These environments are inhabited by psychrophilic (cold-loving) and psychrotolerant (cold-adapted) organisms. Extreme organisms in cold ecosystems are cryophiles comprising bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes, which are able to live and proliferate at temperatures below 0 °C. Especially frozen environments such as tundra, glacier, lake ice, sea ice, or...
KeywordsMicrobial Community Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Lipase Gene Cryoconite Hole Freeze Environment
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