Animal Diseases, Applications of Metagenomics
This entry describes current knowledge about the microbiome of the gastrointestinal tract of animals and its relationship to infectious diseases. It also describes how the microbiome changes during infections.
Rene Dubos’ pioneering work on microbial ecology led to the hypothesis that the microbes of mammals living in intimate contact with each other coevolved with animals (Dubos et al. 1965; Yolton and Savage 1976). Dubos stated, “It is to be expected, therefore, that anatomical structures and physiological needs have been determined in part by the microbiota (microbiome) which prevailed during evolutionary development, and that many manifestations of the body at any given time are influenced by the microbiota now present.” Thus, during the coevolution of the microflora and the host, a set of mutualistic or even symbiotic relationships developed between the host and microbes. This hypothesis is...
KeywordsHuman Microbiome Project Cellulolytic Bacterium Irritable Bowel Disease Lactobacillus Amylovorus Antibiotic Growth Promoter
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