Renewable Energy Systems

2013 Edition
| Editors: Martin Kaltschmitt, Nickolas J. Themelis, Lucien Y. Bronicki, Lennart Söder, Luis A. Vega

Waste-to-Energy: Energy Resource in Solid Wastes

  • Dieter O. Reimann
Reference work entry

Definition of the Subject and Its Importance

In waste legislation and policy , the waste management hierarchy is a list of waste management methods, according to what constitutes the best overall environmental option. It consists of: prevention, reuse, recycling, composting, energy recovery, and disposal [1]. Waste incineration plants are classified either as “recovery,” or as “disposal” operations. This depends on the fraction of energy recovered from that contained in the waste. It is important to note that “recovery” is defined as any operation through which wastes replace other materials that would be needed to fulfill a particular function in the plant or in the wider economy [1].

An appropriate method to assess whether or not a waste incineration plant is a recovery operation is to evaluate the energy produced and used from the waste. The European Commission has quantified this distinction by means of the R1 energy efficiency formula. A plant can only be classified as a recovery...

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Primary Literature

  1. 1.
    European Parliament and Council (2008) Waste framework directive 2008/98/EC. Annex I and II. Off J L312:3–30, 22.11.2008. Scholar
  2. 2.
    PE International and CEWEP (2008) Life cycle assessment of WTE plants in Europe: Study, Table 2.2.,223.html (available on request from CEWEP)
  3. 3.
    European Commission (2006) BREF waste incineration (WI) for Integrated pollution prevention and control (IPPC) EIPPC Bureau Sevilla.
  4. 4.
    European Parliament and Council (2000) EU waste incineration directive 2000/76/EC. Off J L332:0091–0111, 28.12.2000. Scholar
  5. 5.
    Reimann DO, Hämmerli H (1995) Verbrennungstechnik für Abfälle in Theorie und Praxis (Waste incineration in theory and practice). Schriftenreihe Umweltschutz, Bamberg p 80ff (out of print)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Reimann DO (2003) Ermittlung und Bedeutung von Kennzahlen zur Energie und Anlagennutzung sowie zu Wirkungsgraden für die Abfallverbrennung (Determination and meaning of identification numbers for energy and plants as well as efficiencies of waste incineration) Müll und Abfall, Heft 10:512–520Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    European Commission (2010) Draft of the EU-Guidance for R1 formula, Version April 2011Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    CEWEP (2006) CEWEP energy report (Status 2001–2004) by Reimann DO, p 5ff.,223.html
  9. 9.
    CEWEP (2009) CEWEP energy report II (Status 2004–2007) by Reimann DO, p 4ff.,223.html
  10. 10.
    Reimann DO (1991) Rostfeuerungen zur Abfallverbrennung (Grate fired combustion of waste). EF Verlag, Berlin. ISBN 3-924511-55-1Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Reimann DO (2004) Energetische Bilanzierung von Müllverbrennungsanlagen (Balancing of energy from waste incineration plants). Erich Schmitt, Berlin, ISBN 3 503 08324 3Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Reimann DO (2010) R1 as efficiency indicator: status quo and optimization potential. In: Second conference on biomass and waste combustion, Oslo.

Books and Reviews

  1. Euroheat & Power (2005) District heating and cooling – Country by country/2005 Survey. Euroheat & Power, BelgiumGoogle Scholar
  2. IPCC-Ditective (2000) Good practice guidance and uncertainty management in National Greenhouse Gas Inventories – IPCC/OECD/IEA Programme. WMO Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change UNEP, Bern, p 55ffGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Confederation of European Waste-to-Energy Plants (CEWEP)BambergGermany