Renewable Energy Systems

2013 Edition
| Editors: Martin Kaltschmitt, Nickolas J. Themelis, Lucien Y. Bronicki, Lennart Söder, Luis A. Vega

Wind Power Generator Systems and Local Power System Interconnection

Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-5820-3_86

Definition of the Subject

The electrical system of a wind turbine could be referred to as the heart of the wind turbine. The main purpose of the electrical system is of course to convert the incoming mechanical energy on the shaft to electrical energy that is fed into the connected power grid. This conversion should naturally be done with a minimum of losses as well as with the smallest component size possible.

In addition, the electrical system has the ability to influence the power quality impact that a wind turbine has on the power grid and also the ability to control the speed and torque on the machine shaft (if it is equipped with a power electronic converter) and in this way maximize the energy capture as well as to keep the stresses on the structure to a minimum.

These requirements (high energy capture, good power quality impact, low stresses on the structure in order to minimize the material needed) have in combination with the technical development led to an evolution of wind...

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Notes

Glossary

Abbreviations

AC

Alternating current

DC

Direct current

IM

Induction machine

PE

Power electronics

PF

Power factor

THD

Total harmonic distortion

THDi

Total harmonic distortion for the current

X(n)

Harmonic number

List of Commonly Used Variables

A

Area [m2] real quantity

B

Magnetic flux [T] imaginary quantity

C

Capacitance [F]

F

Force [Nm]

Cp

Aerodynamic power coefficient

I

Current [A]

I

Complex current vector [A]

IactiveIreactive = IqId

Active (quadrature axis) and reactive (direct axis) current [A]

J

Inertia [kgm2]

L

Inductance [H]

N

Number of turbines

N1,N2

Number of turns in a transformer

Pconv

Power transmitted by a converter [W]

PeP

Electric power [W]

Pst

Short-term flicker severity index

Pst,ind

Short-term flicker severity index individual turbine

Plt

Long-term flicker severity index

Ploss

Power loss [W]

Pmech

Mechanical power [W]

PR,PS,Ptotal

Rotor, stator, and total power [W]

Pw

Available power in the wind [W]

QeQ

Reactive current [VA]

R

Resistance [Ω] radius [m]

RL

Line resistance [Ω]

Rsc

Short-circuit resistance [Ω]

S

Slip

S

Apparent power [kVA]

Ssc

Short-circuit capacity [VA]

Ssc fic

Fictitious short-circuit capacity [VA]

Sn

Rating of wind energy installation [VA]

T

Torque [Nm]

Te

Electrodynamical torque [Nm]

Ts

Shaft torque [Nm]

Tw

Wind torque [Nm]

U

Voltage [V]

U

Complex voltage vector [V]

U1,U2

Primary and secondary voltage [V]

UN

Rated voltage [V]

UR,US

Rotor and stator voltage [V]

Û Urms

Peak and rms-value of voltage [V]

Vdc

DC-link voltage [V]

W

Energy [Ws]

WS

Wind speed [m/s]

X

Reactance [Ω]

XL

Line reactance [Ω]

Xsc

Short-circuit reactance [Ω]

ZL

Line impedance [Ω]

Zsc

Short-circuit impedance [Ω]

cf

Flicker coefficient

e

Induced voltage [V]

irisit

Phase currents [A]

n

Rotational speed [rpm]

p

Instantaneous power [W] pole-pair number

r

Distance [m]

t time

Time [s]

urusut

Phase voltages [V]

ΔU

Voltage variation [V]

Φ

Phase angle between voltage and current [Degree]

Ψ

Flux [Wb]

Ψsc

Short-circuit angle [Degree]

Ψs,Ψr,Ψm

Stator rotor, magnetizing flux linkage (“flux”) [Wb]

Ωm

Rotor speed [rad/s]

δ

Load angle [deg]

λ

Tip-speed ratio

ω

Speed [rad/s]

ωel

Electrical speed [rad/s]

ωs

Synchronous speed [rad/s]

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Energy and Environment, Division of Electric Power EngineeringChalmers University of TechnologyGöteborgSweden