Renewable Energy Systems

2013 Edition
| Editors: Martin Kaltschmitt, Nickolas J. Themelis, Lucien Y. Bronicki, Lennart Söder, Luis A. Vega

Waste-to-Energy using Refuse-Derived Fuel

Reference work entry

Definition of Subject

Combustion of municipal refuse to produce energy and recover recyclable materials is consistent with goals to diversify energy generation sources and implement sustainable and renewable options. Using waste as a fuel can decrease dependency on non-sustainable fossil fuels, such as coal, oil, and gas, and provide a consistent and reliable source of recyclable materials, as well as get rid of the waste and minimize landfilling.

Processing the refuse to generate energy and recover materials before and after burning is an approach that has been provided as an alternative to mass-burn incineration. This alternative has been practiced as a parallel choice since the early 1970s, and, in many situations, has provided advantages in the form of increased energy production, lower landfill disposal requirements, higher quality combustion residues with low unburned carbon content, complete combustion, cleaner gases going to the air quality control system, higher materials...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


Primary Literature

  1. 1.
    Hasselriis F (1984) Refuse-derived fuel processing. Butterworth Publishers, Boston (available from author)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Sutin GL (2004) The evolution of processed refuse fuel technology. Energy Answers Corporation, Albany, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sutin GL (1998) Suspension firing – the heart of an integrated waste-to-energy system. Energy Answers Corporation, AlbanyGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Rochford RS, Witkowski WJ (1978) Considerations in the design of shredded municipal refuse burning and heat recovery system. In: Proceedings of the 8th National Waste Processing Conference, Chicago, ASME, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    France HA (1986) Hamilton SWARU retrofit. In: 1986 National Waste Processing Conference, ASME, DenverGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Fiscus DE et al (1977) St. Louis demonstration final report. EPA-600/2-77-155a, MERL/ORD/U.S. EPA, CincinnatiGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gorman PG et al (1977) St. Louis Demonstration final report: power plant equipment, facilities, and environmental evaluations. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Report EPA-600/2-77-1556Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hasselriis F (1983) Thermal systems for conversion of municipal waste, Vol. 4, Burning refuse-derived fuel in boilers. A Technology Status Report. ANL/CNSV-TM-120, Argonne National LaboratoryGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Fiscus DE et al (1983) Study of existing RDF-cofiring experience. Appendixes to Phase I Final Report, ANL/CNSV-TM-134, vol 2, Argonne National LaboratoryGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hasselriis F (1980) The greater Bridgeport, Connecticut waste-to-power system. In: Proceedings of the 1980 National Waste Processing Conference, Paper Number WSS/CI 81-6Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Energy Recovery Council.
  12. 12.
    Michaels T (2007) The 2007 IWSA directory of waste-to-energy plants: Integrated Waste Services Association, 31 p.
  13. 13.
    Di Maria F, Pavesi G (2006) RDF to energy plant…energetic and economical analysis. Appl Therm Eng 26:1291–1300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Murphy ML (1999) Design and performance requirements for a fluidized bed boiler firing municipal refuse derived fuel in Ravenna, Italy. In: Proceedings of the 15th International Fluidized Bed Combustion Conference, Savannah, 16–19 May 1999, Paper FBC99-0128, epi2@energyproducts.comGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Pope K (1998) Difficult fuels and stringent emissions requirements influence combustion technology preference in Europe, Energy Products of Idaho, epi2@energyproducts.comGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Abrams RF et al (2010) 2,400 tons per day refuse-derived fuel facility with advanced boiler and air pollution control systems. In: Proceedings of the 18th Annual North American Waste-to-Energy Conference, Orlando, FloridaGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Abrams RF, Faia R (2009) RSCR system to reduce NOx emissions from boilers. In: Proceedings of the 17th North American Waste-to-Energy Conference, Chantilly, VirginiaGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ferraro FA et al (1988) Results of emissions and ash testing at the maine energy recovery WTE plant. WTI Energy, Inc., Biddeford, MaineGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bresowar GE et al (1988) Operating experience with a spray dry scrubbing system on a RDF-Fired boiler. Combustion Engineering, Inc.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Entropy Environmentalists Inc. (1988) Bridgeport Resco, Co., LP resource recovery facility compliance test report. Wheelabrator Environmental Systems, Inc.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    J. L. Hahn, H. P. Von Dem Fange, D. Sofaer, Ogden Projects, Inc., “Recent Air Emissions Data from Ogden Martin Systems, Inc. Resource Recovery Facilities, Which Became Operational During 1988,” June 1989,
  22. 22.
    Kaiser E (1966) Chemical analysis of refuse components. In: Proceedings of the 1966 National Incinerator Conference, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Gershman HW (2010) Fuel for the fire: a renewable energy push could spark demand for refuse-derived-fuel. Waste Age, March 2010Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Mahoney PF, Zakaria J (1993) Basic design and operation information of the semass resource recovery facility. In: RDF Technology Seminar, Williamsburg, 29 Mar 1993Google Scholar

Books and Reviews

  1. Beyond Sustainable: The Efficient Extraction of Energy & Marketable Products from Waste Materials. Keynote address – Waste Management & Recycling Congress, Berlin, Germany, October 2008Google Scholar
  2. Bobman M, Culbertson J (2010) Waste composition in the Northeast U.S. – implications for resource recovery. In: Proceedings of the 18th Annual North American Waste-to-Energy Conference, NAWTEC, OrlandoGoogle Scholar
  3. Consonni S, Giuliano M, Grosso M (2005) Alternate strategies for energy recovery from municipal solid waste. In: WTERT 2005, Columbia UniversityGoogle Scholar
  4. Eco-Industrial Parks as a Vehicle for Converting Liability to Productive Redevelopment. 18th AHC Group Corporate Affiliates Workshop, Saratoga Springs, NY, June 2008Google Scholar
  5. Efficient Recovery of Materials and Energy from Residual Waste. R’07 World Congress, Davos, Switzerland, September 2007Google Scholar
  6. Energy Answers International (2010) Fairfield renewable energy plant and resource recovery project. Energy Answers International,
  7. Gershman HW (2010) Fuel for the fire: a renewable energy push could spark demand for refuse-derived-fuel. Waste Age, March 2010Google Scholar
  8. Hasselriis F (1999) Practical design of waste incineration (Chapter 2.3) and Calculations for permitting and compliance (Chapter 2.4). In: Lee CC (ed) McGraw-Hill handbook of environmental calculations, ISBN 0-07-038183-6Google Scholar
  9. Hollander H, Kieffer JK, Eller V, Stephenson JW (1980) A comprehensive municipal waste characterization program. In: Proceedings of the 1980 National Waste Processing Conference, ASME, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  10. Lisiecki HG (1978) RDF storage and retrieval problems, cause-effect options. In: Proceedings of the National Waste Processing Conference, Chicago, ASME, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  11. Mahoney PF (1980) ANSWERS: a comprehensive solution to the economic, technical and institutional problems of solid waste reuse. In: 8th Annual Industrial Pollution Conference, HoustonGoogle Scholar
  12. Mahoney PF, Mullen J (1988) Approaching total recovery in municipal solid waste to energy systems. In: 23rd Inter-Society Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, DenverGoogle Scholar
  13. Murphy ML (2002) Advancing waste to energy technology design and performance of EPI fluidized bed RDF-fired power plants worldwide. In: 10th North American Waste to Energy Conference, ASME, Philadelphia, NAWTEC10-1011, Scholar
  14. Nollet AR, Greeley RH (1982) New concepts for explosion alleviation in shred-first solid waste plants. In: Proceedings of the National Waste Processing Conference, ASME, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  15. Providing Market Competitive Sustainable Solutions Drive the Bottom Line. AHC Corporate Affiliates Benchmarking Workshop, Phoenix, AZ, February 2007Google Scholar
  16. Resource Recovery vs. Waste to Energy. Confederation of European Waste-to-Energy Plants Congress, Vienna, Austria, May 2006Google Scholar
  17. Solid Waste as an Economic Generator for Sustainable Development. AHC Group 9th Annual Affiliate Program, Saratoga Springs, NY, June 2001Google Scholar
  18. Tchobanoglous G, Kreith F (eds) (2002) Handbook of solid waste management. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Hasselriis AssociatesForest HillsUSA
  2. 2.Energy Answers International, Inc.AlbanyUSA