Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice

2014 Edition
| Editors: Gerben Bruinsma, David Weisburd

History of Criminological Theories: Causes of Crime

Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-5690-2_547

Synonyms

Overview

For thousands of years, mankind has developed and applied vague or specific thoughts about what behavior should be labeled as criminal, who the criminals are, and what the causes of crime may be. Philosophers in the eighteenth and early nineteenth century put forward the rational criminal who is free to make choices and criticized the cruel and unjust criminal justice system. The scientific study of crime started in the beginning of nineteenth century with mathematicians searching for empirical regularities between countries and areas in administrative governmental data. Sociologists, psychologists, and physicians introduced societal and individual causes of crime in a comprehensive way. Later, new developments in other disciplines triggered new thoughts on the causes of crime, notably strain, control, and cultural theories. These have been dominant for about many decades,...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access

Notes

Acknowledgement

The author wants to thank professor Sally Simpson (Maryland) and professor Lieven Pauwels (Ghent) for their helpful comments on a previous draft.

Recommended Reading and References

  1. Adler F (1975) Sisters in crime. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  2. Afschaffenberg G (1906) Das Verbrechen und seine Bekämpfung. Einleitung in die Kriminalpsychologie für Mediziner, Juristen und Soziologen; Ein Beitrag zur Reform der Strafgesetzgebung, 2 edn. Carl Winter’s Universitätsbuchhandlung, HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  3. Agnew R (1992) Foundation for a general strain theory of crime and delinquency. Criminology 30:47–87Google Scholar
  4. Agnew R (2006) Pressured into crime. An overview of general strain theory. Roxbury, Los AngelesGoogle Scholar
  5. Becker GS (1968) Crime and punishment: an economic approach. J Polit Econ 76:169–217Google Scholar
  6. Becker H (1963) Outsiders. Studies in the sociology of deviance. The Free Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  7. Beirne P (1987) Adolphe Quételet and the origins of positivist criminology. Am J Sociol 92(5):1140–1169Google Scholar
  8. Bernard TJ (1990) Twenty years of testing theories: what have we learned and why. J Res Crime Delinq 27(4):325–347Google Scholar
  9. Bierstedt R (1978) Sociological thought in the eighteenth century. In: Bottomore T, Nisbet R (eds) A history of sociological analysis. Heineman, London, pp 3–38Google Scholar
  10. Blumstein A, Cohen J, Farrington DP (1988) Longitudinal and criminal career research: further clarifications. Criminology 26(1):57–74Google Scholar
  11. Bonger WA (1969 [1905 and 1916]) Criminality and economic conditions (abridged edition ed.). Indiana University Press, BloomingtonGoogle Scholar
  12. Braithwaite J (1989) Crime, shame and reintegration. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  13. Brantingham PJ, Brantingham PL (eds) (1991) Environmental criminology. Waveland, Prospect HeightsGoogle Scholar
  14. Bursik RJ (1984) Urban dynamics and ecological studies of delinquency. Soc Forces 63:393–413Google Scholar
  15. Bursik RJ (1986) Ecological stability and the dynamics of delinquency. In: Reiss AJ Jr, Tonry M (eds) Communities and crime. Crime and justice. A review of research, vol 8. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp 35–66Google Scholar
  16. Bursik RJ (1988) Social disorganization and theories of crime and delinquency: problems and prospects. Criminology 26(4):519–552Google Scholar
  17. Bursik RJ, Grasmick HG (1993) Methods of studying community change in the rate and pattern of crime. In: Farrington DP, Sampson RJ, Wikström P-OH (eds) Integrating individual and ecological aspects of crime. National Council for Crime Prevention, Stockholm, pp 241–258Google Scholar
  18. Chambliss WJ (ed) (1969) Crime and the legal process. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  19. Chambliss WJ, Seidmann R (1986) Law, order, and power. Addison-Wesley, ReadingGoogle Scholar
  20. Clarke RV, Felson M (eds) (1993) Routine activity and rational choice. Advances in criminological theory, vol 5. Transaction Books, New BrunswickGoogle Scholar
  21. Cohen AK (ed) (1968) International encyclopaedia of the social sciences, vol XV. Macmillan, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  22. Cohen L, Felson M (1979) Social change and crime rate trends: a routine activity approach. Am Sociol Rev 44(4):588–608Google Scholar
  23. Cornish DB, Clarke RV (eds) (1986) The reasoning criminal. Rational choice perspectives on offending. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  24. Coser LA (1977) Masters of sociological thought. Ideas in historical and social context, 2nd edn. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  25. Cressey DR (1964) Delinquency, crime and differential association. Martinus Nijhoff, Den HaagGoogle Scholar
  26. Cressey DR (1969) Epidemiology and individual conduct. In: Cressey DR (ed) Delinquency, crime and social process. Harper & Row, New York, pp 557–577Google Scholar
  27. Cullen FT (2011) Beyond adolescence-limited criminology: choosing our future – The American Society of Criminology 201 Sutherland Address. Criminology 49(2):287–330Google Scholar
  28. Cullen FT, Messner SF (2007) The making of criminology revisited. An oral history of Merton’s anomie paradigm. Theor Criminol 11(1):5–37Google Scholar
  29. Daly K, Maher L (1998) Criminology at the crossroads: Feminist readings in crime and justice. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  30. Ducpétiaux E (1827) De la Justice de prévoyance, et particulierement de l’influence de la misere et de l’aisance, de l’ignorance et de l’instruction sur le nombre des crimes. J.J. de Cautaerts, BruxellesGoogle Scholar
  31. Durkheim E (1951[1897]) Suicide: a study in sociology (trans: Simpson G, Spaulding JA). The Free Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  32. Durkheim E (1964[1893]) The division of labor in society. Free Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  33. Eck JE, Weisburd D (eds) (1995) Crime and place, vol 4. Criminal Justice Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  34. Farrington DP (1988) Studying changes within individuals: the causes of offending. In: Rutter M (ed) Studies of psychosocial risk. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 158–183Google Scholar
  35. Farrington DP (2003) Developmental and life-course criminology: key theoretical and empirical issues – the 2002 Sutherland Award Address. Criminology 41(2):221–255Google Scholar
  36. Farrington DP (ed) (2002) Human development and criminal careers. Clarendon, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  37. Felson M (2008) Routine activity approach. In: Wortley R, Mazarolle L (eds) Environmental criminology and crime analysis. Willan, Devon, pp 70–77Google Scholar
  38. Fletcher J (1848) Moral and educational statistics of England and Wales. J Stat Soc Lond 11:344–366Google Scholar
  39. Garland D (2001) The culture of control: Crime and social order in contemporary society. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  40. Garland D, Sparks R (eds) (1995) Punishment and modern society: A study in social theory. Clarendon, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  41. Glaser D (1972) The differential association theory of crime. In: Rose AM (ed) Human behavior and social processes. An interactionist perspective. Routledge/Kegan & Paul, London, pp 425–442Google Scholar
  42. Glueck S, Glueck ET (1950) Unraveling juvenile delinquency. Harvard University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  43. Goffman E (1961) Asylums: Essays on the social situation of mental patients and other inmates. Penguin, HarmondsworthGoogle Scholar
  44. Gottfredson MR, Hirschi T (1990) A general theory of crime. Stanford University Press, StanfordGoogle Scholar
  45. Guerry A-M (1832) La Statistique Comparée de l’Etat de l’Instruction et du Nombre des Crimes. Revue Encyclopédique 55:414–424Google Scholar
  46. Guerry A-M (1833) Essai sur la Statistique Morale de la France. Crochard, ParisGoogle Scholar
  47. Guerry A-M (1864) Statistique Morale de l’Angleterre Comparée avec la Statistique Morale de la France. Bailliére, ParisGoogle Scholar
  48. Hirschi T (2006 [1969]) Causes of delinquency, 5th edn. Transaction, New Brunswick/LondonGoogle Scholar
  49. Jagger AM, Rothenberg Struhl P (1978) Feminist frameworks: Alternative theoretical accounts of the relations between women and men. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  50. Kerner H-J (1998) The global growth of criminology. Annales Internationales de Criminologie 36(1–2):27–42Google Scholar
  51. Klein D (1973) The etiology of female crime: a review of the literature. Issues Criminol 8:3–30Google Scholar
  52. Kubrin CE, Weitzer R (2003) New directions in social disorganization theory. J Res Crime Delinq 40(4):374–402Google Scholar
  53. Lakatos I (1970) Falsification and the methodology of scientific research programmes. In: Lakatos I, Musgrave A (eds) Criticism and the growth of knowledge. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 91–196Google Scholar
  54. Laub JH, Sampson RJ (2003) Shared beginnings, Divergent lives. Delinquent boys to age 70. Harvard University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  55. Leblanc M (1997) A generic control theory of the criminal phenomena: the structural and dynamic statements of an integrative multilayered control theory. In: Thornberry TP (ed) Developmental theories of crime and delinquency. Transaction, New Brunswick, pp 215–286Google Scholar
  56. Lemert EM (1951) Social pathology. McGrawHill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  57. Lemert EM (1967) Human deviance, social problems and social control. Prentice Hall, Englewood CliffsGoogle Scholar
  58. Loeber R (1990) Development and risk factors of juvenile antisocial behavior and delinquency. Clin Psychol Rev 10:1–41Google Scholar
  59. Loeber R, Wikström P-OH (1993) Individual pathways to crime in different types of neighborhoods. In: Farrington DP, Sampson RJ, Wikström P-OH (eds) Integrating individual and ecological aspects of crime. Allmänna förlaget, Stockholm, pp 169–204Google Scholar
  60. Lombroso C (2006 [1878]) Criminal man (translated and with a new introduction by Gibson M, Han Rafter N). Duke University Press, Durham & LondonGoogle Scholar
  61. Marsh I (2004) Criminal justice an introduction to philosophies theories and practice. Routledge, London/New YorkGoogle Scholar
  62. Mead GH (1974 [1934]) Mind, self & society from a standpoint of a social behaviourist, Vol 1 (ed. and with an introduction by Morris CW (19 edn). The University of Chicago Press, Chicago/LondonGoogle Scholar
  63. Merton RK (1938) Social structure and anomie. Am Sociol Rev 3(5):672–682Google Scholar
  64. Messner S, Rosenfeld R (1997) Crime and the American dream, 2nd edn. Wadsworth, BelmondGoogle Scholar
  65. Michael J, Adler MJ (1933) Crime, law and social science. Harcourt Brace, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  66. Moffitt TE (1993) Adolescence-limited and life-course persistent antisocial behavior: a developmental taxonomy. Psychol Rev 100(4):674–701Google Scholar
  67. Morenoff JD, Sampson RJ (1997) Violent crime and the spatial dynamics of neighborhood transition: Chicago, 1970–1990. Soc Forces 76:31–64Google Scholar
  68. Nagin DS (2005) Group-based modeling of development over the life course. Harvard University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  69. Nye FI (1958) Family relationships and delinquent behavior. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  70. Oberwittler D, Wikström P-OH (2009) Why small is better: advancing the study of the role of behavioral contexts in crime causation. In: Weisburd D, Bernasco W, Bruinsma GJN (eds) Putting crime in its place: Units of analysis in geographic criminology. Springer, New York, pp 35–59Google Scholar
  71. Opp K-D (1974) Abweichendes Verhalten und Gesellschaftsstruktur. Luchterhand, NeuwiedGoogle Scholar
  72. Parmelee M (1918/1919) Criminology. MacMillan, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  73. Quételet A (1847) Statistique morale de l’influence du libre arbiter de l’homme sur les faits sociaux, et particulierement sur le nombre des marriages. Bulletin de la Commission Centrale de Statistique III:135–155Google Scholar
  74. Quételet A (1984 [1831]) Research on the propensity for crime at different ages (translated and with an introduction by Sylvester SF). Anderson Publishing, CincinnatiGoogle Scholar
  75. Quinney R (1970) The social reality of crime. Little Brown, BostonGoogle Scholar
  76. Rafter NH (2008) The criminal brain: Understanding biological theories of crime. New York University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  77. Raine A (1993) The psychopathology of crime: Criminal behavior as a clinical disorder. Academic, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  78. Raudenbush SW, Sampson RJ (1999) Ecometrics: towards a science of assessing ecological settings, with appliance to the systematic social observations of neighbourhoods. Sociol Methodol 29:1–41Google Scholar
  79. Rawson RW (1839) An inquiry into the statistics of crime in England and Wales. J Stat Soc Lond 2:316–344Google Scholar
  80. Reckless WC (1940) Criminal behavior. McGraw-Hill, New York/LondonGoogle Scholar
  81. Reckless WC (1961) The crime problem, 3rd edn. Appleton, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  82. Reiss AJ Jr (1951) Delinquency as the failure of personal and social controls. Am Sociol Rev 16(2):196–207Google Scholar
  83. Ross EA (1918 [1901]) Social order: a survey of the foundations of order. Macmillan, New York/LondonGoogle Scholar
  84. Sampson RJ (1987) Communities and crime. In: Gottfredson MR, Hirschi T (eds) Positive criminology. Sage, Newbury Park, pp 91–114Google Scholar
  85. Sampson RJ (1995) The community. In: Wilson JQ, Peterselia J (eds) Crime. Twenty-eight experts look at the most pressing problems of our time. ICS Press, San Francisco, pp 193–216Google Scholar
  86. Sampson RJ (2010) Collective efficacy theory. In: Cullen FT, Wilcox P (eds) Encyclopedia of criminological theory. Sage, Thousands Oaks, pp 802–812Google Scholar
  87. Sampson RJ, Groves WB (1989) Community structure and crime: Testing social -disorganization theory. Am J Sociol 94(4):774–802Google Scholar
  88. Sampson RJ, Laub JH (1993) Crime in the making: Pathways and turning points through life. Harvard University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  89. Sampson RJ, Raudenbush SW, Earls F (1997) Neighbourhoods and violent crime: a multilevel study of collective efficacy. Science 277:918–924Google Scholar
  90. Sellin T (1938) Culture conflict and crime. Social Science Research Council, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  91. Sherman LW, Gartin PR, Bueger ME (1989) Hot spots of predatory crime: routine activities and the criminology of place. Criminology 27:27–56Google Scholar
  92. Simpson S (1989) Feminist theory, crime, and justice. Criminology 27(4):605–631Google Scholar
  93. Skinner BF (1976) About behaviorism. Vintage Books, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  94. Smart C (1976) Women crime and criminology. A feminist critique. Routledge/Kegan Paul, LondonGoogle Scholar
  95. Sutherland EH (1924) Criminology. Lippincott, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  96. Sutherland EH (1934) Principles of criminology. Lippincott, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  97. Sutherland EH (1937) The professional thief. The University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  98. Sutherland EH (1939) Principles of criminology. Lippincott, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  99. Sutherland EH (1947) Principles of criminology. Lippincott, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  100. Sutherland EH (1983[1949]) White collar crime. The uncut version. Yale University Press, New Haven/LondonGoogle Scholar
  101. Tannenbaum F (1938) Crime and the community. Ginn, BostonGoogle Scholar
  102. Taylor I, Walton P, Young J (eds) (1975) Critical criminology. Routledge/Kegan Paul, London/BostonGoogle Scholar
  103. Taylor I, Walton P, Young Y (1973) The new criminology. For a social theory of deviance. Harper and Row, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  104. Thomas WI (1966) On social organization and social personality. Selected papers (edited and with an introduction by Janovitz M). The University of Chicago Press, Chicago/LondonGoogle Scholar
  105. Thomas WI, Znaniecki F (1918/1920) The polish peasant in Europe and America. Badger, BostonGoogle Scholar
  106. Toby J (1957) Social disorganization and stake in conformity: complementary factors in the predatory behavior of hoodlums. J Crim Law, Criminol Police Sci 48:12–17Google Scholar
  107. Turk A (1969) Criminality and legal order. Rand McNally, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  108. Weisburd D, Bruinsma GJN, Bernasco W (2009) Units of analysis in geographic criminology: historical development, critical issues, and open questions. In: Weisburd D, Bernasco W, Bruinsma GJN (eds) Putting crime in its place: units of analysis in geographic criminology. Springer, New York, pp 3–31Google Scholar
  109. Weisburd D, Piquero AR (2008) How well do criminologists explain crime? Statistical modelling in published studies. In: Tonry M (ed) Crime and justice. A review of research, vol 37. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp 453–502Google Scholar
  110. Wirth L (1938) Urbanism as a way of life. Am J Sociol 44(1):1–24Google Scholar
  111. Wolfgang ME, Figlio RM, Sellin T (1972) Delinquency in a birth cohort. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  112. Wolfgang ME, Figlio RM, Thornberry TP (1978) Evaluating criminology. Elsevier, New YorkGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Netherlands Institute for the Study of Crime and Law Enforcement (NSCR)AmsterdamThe Netherlands
  2. 2.VU University AmsterdamAmsterdamThe Netherlands