Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice

2014 Edition
| Editors: Gerben Bruinsma, David Weisburd

Actualizing Risk-Need-Responsivity

  • Faye S. TaxmanEmail author
  • Michael Caudy
  • Stephanie Maass
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-5690-2_349



The Risk-Need-Responsivity (RNR) model for correctional programming has served as a framework for promoting the use of evidence-based correctional strategies. The RNR framework has three core principles: (1) identify and target the static risk level of the individual, (2) identify the dynamic risk factors (needs) that are associated with offending behavior and that affect psychosocial functioning, and (3) identify appropriate correctional interventions that are suitable to address the risk-need interaction. Adherence to all three of these principles promises a greater impact on recidivism and other individual offender outcomes. This essay provides a brief overview of (1) risk assessment, (2) dynamic offender needs, and (3) responsivity.

The Risk-Need-Responsivity Model

The core components of the RNR Model are:
  • Risk: Match the intensity of...

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Recommended Reading and References

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Faye S. Taxman
    • 1
    Email author
  • Michael Caudy
    • 1
  • Stephanie Maass
    • 1
  1. 1.Criminology, Law and SocietyGeorge Mason UniversityFairfaxUSA