Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice

2014 Edition
| Editors: Gerben Bruinsma, David Weisburd

Victimization, Gender, and the Criminal Justice System

Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-5690-2_324



Since the development of the criminal victimization survey in the late 1960s, appreciation of the impact of crime has risen up national and international criminal justice agendas. Its more recent refinement as a tool, alongside the input of feminist work, has contributed to a rising awareness of the gendered nature of that impact. This is especially the case in respect of sexual violence. However, as awareness of this impact has increased so has awareness of the shortcomings of criminal justice systems to appreciate and respond appropriately to this kind of criminal victimization. In this chapter some of the tensions that exist between what is known about the gendered nature of sexual violence and what is done about it will be considered. By way of conclusion areas for further work and investigation will be suggested.

What Does Gender Mean?

It is beyond doubt that gender as a word is now increasingly used not only in...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Recommended Reading and References

  1. Allen S (2002) Male victims of rape: responses to a perceived threat to masculinity. In: Hoyle C, Young R (eds) New visions of crime victims. Hart Publishing, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  2. Amir M (1971) Patterns of forcible rape. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson I (2007) What is a typical rape? Effects of victim and participant gender in female and male rape perception. Br J Soc Psychol 44:245–265Google Scholar
  4. Brown J, Walklate S (2011) Introduction. In: Brown J, Walklate S (eds) Handbook on sexual violence. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  5. Brown J, Horvath M, Kelly L, Westmarland N (2010a) Has anything changed? Results of a comparative study (1977–2010) on opinions towards rape. Government Equalities Office, LondonGoogle Scholar
  6. Brown J, Horvath M, Kelly L, Westmarland N (2010b) Connections and disconnections: assessing evidence, knowledge and practice in responses to rape. Government Equalities Office, LondonGoogle Scholar
  7. Burman M (2009) Evidencing sexual assault. Probation J 56(4):379–398Google Scholar
  8. Christie N (1986) The ideal victim. In: Fattah EA (ed) From crime policy to victim policy. Macmillan, LondonGoogle Scholar
  9. Coxell A, King M, Mezey G, Gordon D (1999) Lifetime, prevalence, characteristics and associated problems of non-consensual sex in men: cross sectional survey. Br Med J 318(7187):846–850Google Scholar
  10. Daly K, Bouhours B (2009) Rape and attrition in the legal process: a comparative analysis of five countries. Forthcoming in crime and justice: an annual review of research 39. Downloaded 26 Oct 2010Google Scholar
  11. Davies M, Pollard P, Archer J (2006) Effects of perpetrator gender and victim sexuality on blame toward male victims of sexual assault. J Soc Psychol 146(3):275–291, BritishGoogle Scholar
  12. Fraser N (2009) Feminism, capitalism and the cunning of history. New Left Rev 56:97–117Google Scholar
  13. Goodey J (1997) Boys don’t cry: masculinities, fear of crime and fearlessness. Br J Criminol 37(3):401–418Google Scholar
  14. Graham R (2006) Male rape and the careful construction of the male victim. Soc Leg Stud 15(2):187–208Google Scholar
  15. Hindelang MJ, Gottfredson MR, Garofalo J (1978) Victims of crime: an empirical foundation for a theory of personal victimisation. Ballinger, Cambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  16. HMCPSI (2007) Without consent. HMCPSI, LondonGoogle Scholar
  17. Jordan J (2008) Serial survivors: women’s narratives of surviving rape. The Federation Press, SydneyGoogle Scholar
  18. Jordan J (2011) Silencing rape, silencing women. In: Brown J, Walklate S (eds) Handbook on sexual violence. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  19. Kelly L (1988) Surviving sexual violence. Polity, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  20. Kelly L (2011) Standing the test of time? Reflections on the concept of the continuum of sexual violence. In: Brown J, Walklate S (eds) Handbook on sexual violence. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  21. Lees S (1997) Ruling passions. Open University Press, BuckinghamGoogle Scholar
  22. Lees S (1999) Carnal knowledge. The Women’s Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  23. Mooney J (2007) Shadow values, shadow figures: real violence. Crit Criminol 15:159–170Google Scholar
  24. Naffine N (1997) Feminism and criminology. Temple University Press, Philadelphia, PolityGoogle Scholar
  25. Povey D, Coleman K, Kaiza P, Roe S (2009) Homicides, firearm offences and intimate violence. supplementary volume 2 to crime in England and Wales 2007/08. Home Office Statistical Bulletin. London: Home OfficeGoogle Scholar
  26. Rumney P (2008) Policing male rape and sexual assault –. J Crim Law 72(1):67–78Google Scholar
  27. Russell D (1990) Rape in marriage. Collier, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  28. Smart C (1989) Feminism and the power of law. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  29. Stern V (2010) The stern review: Government Equalities Office, LondonGoogle Scholar
  30. Weiss KG (2010) Too ashamed to report: deconstructing the shame of sexual victimization. Feminist Criminol 5(3):286–310Google Scholar
  31. Winlow S, Hall Winlow S, Hall S (2006) Violent night: urban leisure and contemporary culture. Berg, LondonGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Sociology, Social Policy and CriminologyUniversity of LiverpoolLiverpoolUK