Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice

2014 Edition
| Editors: Gerben Bruinsma, David Weisburd

History of Boot Camps

  • Ojmarrh Mitchell
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-5690-2_277

Synonyms

Overview

Correctional boot camps are programs modeled after military basic training. Just like basic training, boot camps emphasize drill and ceremony, and physical activity. Generally, boot camps target young, nonviolent offenders with limited criminal history. Boot camps are almost always short-term programs lasting 90–180 days. Inmates who successfully complete these programs are released under supervision back to the community; however, inmates who drop out or are dismissed from the boot camps often are required to serve longer terms of incarceration in traditional correctional facilities.

Correctional boot camps in the United States emerged, proliferated, and receded with remarkable speed. In the early 1980s, boot camps emerged in two states. Soon thereafter, boot camps became a national phenomenon with at least one boot camp operating in the majority of states by the mid-1990s. Near their peak popularity, the...

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Recommended Reading and References

  1. Anderson JF, Dyson L, Burns JC (1999) Boot camps: an intermediate sanction. University Press of America, LanhamGoogle Scholar
  2. Austin J (2000) Multisite evaluation of boot camp programs: final report. George Washington University, Institute on Crime, Justice, and Corrections, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  3. Gover AR, MacKenzie DL, Styve GJ (1999) Boot camps and traditional correctional facilities for juveniles: a comparison of the participants, activities, and environments. J Crim Justice 28:53–68Google Scholar
  4. Gransky LA, Castellano TC, Cowles EL (1995) Is there a “second generation” of shock incarceration facilities? The evolving nature of goals, program elements, and drug treatment services in boot camp programs. In: Smykla JO, Selke WL (eds) Intermediate sanctions sentencing in the 1990s. Anderson, Cincinnati, pp 89–111Google Scholar
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  9. Lutze FE, Brody DC (1999) Mental abuse as cruel and unusual punishment: do boot camp prisons violate the Eighth Amendment? Crime Delinquency 45:242–255Google Scholar
  10. MacKenzie DL, Armstrong GS (2004) Correctional boot camps: military basic training or a model for corrections? Sage Publications, Thousand OaksGoogle Scholar
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  12. MacKenzie DL, Parent DG (1992) Boot camp prisons for young offenders. In: Byrne JM, Lurigio AJ (eds) Smart sentencing: the emergence of intermediate sanctions. Sage Publications, Newbury Park, pp 103–122Google Scholar
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  18. MacKenzie DL, Mitchell, O, Bierie D, Van Brakle M, O’Neill L, Franke D, Mitchell F (2004) A randomized study of the Maryland correctional boot camp for adults: final report. Unpublished manuscript, College ParkGoogle Scholar
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  25. Styve GJ, MacKenzie DL, Gover AR, Mitchell O (2000) Perceived conditions of confinement: a national evaluation of juvenile boot camps and traditional facilities. Law Hum Behav 24:297–308Google Scholar
  26. Wilson DB, Mackenzie DL, Mitchell FN (2005) Effects of correctional boot camps on offending: a Campbell collaboration systematic review, Campbell Collaboration. http://www.campbellcollaboration.org

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of CriminologyUniversity of South FloridaTampaUSA