Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice

2014 Edition
| Editors: Gerben Bruinsma, David Weisburd

History of Probation and Parole in the United States

  • James T. McCaffertyEmail author
  • Lawrence F. TravisIII
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-5690-2_20


Probation and parole are two types of community supervision that form the “bookends” of corrections in America. Probation is a community supervision sanction imposed in lieu of incarceration, while parole involves supervision of individuals released from incarceration. Together, these two broad types of supervision take on the lion’s share of criminal clients under the formal control of the criminal justice system. Designed to surround incarceration, these correctional settings offer offenders conditional release into the community. Offenders receive formal, written supervision conditions, and a supervision officer monitors their progress and behavior in the community. An offender who commits a new crime while on community supervision or violates the supervision conditions may be placed into an institutional setting. Within probation and parole, offenders may be managed differently. Offenders who commit more serious crimes and are also considered high risk may be placed on...

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Recommended Reading and References

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Sociology and Criminal JusticeKennesaw State UniversityKennesawUSA
  2. 2.School of Criminal JusticeUniversity of CincinnatiCincinnatiUSA