Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice

2014 Edition
| Editors: Gerben Bruinsma, David Weisburd

Hate Crime

  • Barbara Perry
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-5690-2_132



This entry aims to lay out some of the key controversies developments in hate crime scholarship and practice in recent years. Specifically, it speaks to the dilemmas of defining and legislating hate and to the harms associated with hate crime. In addition, it enumerates “what’s hot” and “what’s not” in terms of current scholarship, identifying those areas that are well developed and those that have received little attention. It concludes with a discussion of emerging nonpunitive means by which to address hate crime in practice.

Key Issues

Sadly, the phenomenon we have come to call hate crime has a lengthy history in the west. History does indeed repeat itself as similar patterns of motivation, sentiment, and victimization recur over time. Just as immigrants in the 1890s were subject to institutional and public forms of discrimination and violence, so too were those of the 1990s; likewise, former black slaves...

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Recommended Reading and References

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Social Science and HumanitiesUniversity of Ontario Institute of TechnologyNorth OshawaCanada