Microstructural Behavior and Fracture in Crystalline Materials: Overview

Reference work entry

Abstract

A dislocation-density-based multiple-slip crystalline plasticity framework, which accounts for variant morphologies and orientation relationships (ORs) that are uniquely inherent to lath martensitic microstructures, and a dislocation-density grain-boundary (GB) interaction scheme, which is based on dislocation-density transmission and blockage at variant boundaries, are developed and used to predict stress accumulation or relaxation at the variant interfaces. A microstructural failure criterion, which is based on resolving these stresses on martensitic cleavage planes, and specialized finite-element (FE) methodologies using overlapping elements to represent evolving fracture surfaces are used for a detailed analysis of fracture nucleation and intergranular and transgranular crack growth in martensitic steels. The effects of block and packet boundaries are investigated, and the results indicate that the orientation of the cleavage planes in relation to the slip planes and the lath morphology are the dominant factors that characterize specific failure modes. The block and packet sizes along the lath long direction are the key microstructural features that affect toughening mechanisms, such as crack arrest and deflection, and these mechanisms can be used to control the nucleation and propagation of different failure modes.

Keywords

Nickel Carbide Enthalpy Austenite Martensite 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Support from both the US Office of Naval Research Multi-Disciplinary University Research Initiative on Sound and Electromagnetic Interacting Waves under grant number N00014-10-1-0958 and from the Office of Naval Research under grant number10848631 is gratefully acknowledged.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical and Aerospace EngineeringNorth Carolina State UniversityRaleighUSA
  2. 2.Department of Microstructure–Physics and Alloy DesignMax Planck Institut ür EisenforschungDüsseldorfGermany

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