Encyclopedia of Critical Psychology

2014 Edition
| Editors: Thomas Teo

Discrimination

Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-5583-7_81

Introduction

Many of the greatest societal blights – war, genocide, poverty, social inequality, and oppression – are rooted in discrimination. Social science research investigates a broad range of questions related to discrimination: How are stereotypes and other legitimizing beliefs related to discriminatory behaviors? How pervasive is ageism, heterosexism, racism, classism, and other forms of discrimination? How can discrimination be reduced? How do individual and contextual factors interact to increase or decrease the likelihood of discriminatory treatment? What are the personal and societal consequences of discrimination? Answers to these questions have important implications for improving intergroup relations, reducing bias, and alleviating inequality.

Definition

Discrimination, the behavioral component of prejudice, refers to unjust or unfair treatment based on group membership (e.g., race, ethnicity, class, gender, (dis)ability, sexual orientation, physical appearance)....

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access

References

  1. Allport, G. W. (1954). The nature of prejudice. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  2. Arkes, H. R., & Tetlock, P. E. (2004). Attributions of implicit prejudice, or “Would Jesse Jackson ‘fail’ the implicit association test?” Psychological Inquiry, 15, 257–278.Google Scholar
  3. Badgett, M. V. L., & Frank, J. (2007). Sexual orientation discrimination: An international perspective. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  4. Blank, R. M., Dabady, M., & Citro, C. F. (Eds.) (2004). Measuring racial discrimination: Panel on methods for assessing discrimination. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.Google Scholar
  5. Caplan, P. J., & Cosgrove, L. (Eds.). (2004). Bias in psychiatric diagnosis. Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson.Google Scholar
  6. Choo, H. Y., & Ferree, M. M. (2010). Practicing intersectionality in sociological research: A critical analysis of inclusions, interactions, and institutions in the study of inequalities. Sociological Theory, 28, 129–149.Google Scholar
  7. Dovidio, J. F., & Gaertner, S. L. (2010). Intergroup bias. In S. T. Fiske, D. T. Gilbert, & G. Lindzey (Eds.). Handbook of social psychology (5th ed., Vol. 2, pp. 1084–1121). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
  8. Glick, P., & Fiske, S. T. (1997). Hostile and benevolent sexism: Measuring ambivalent sexist attitudes toward women. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 21, 119–135.Google Scholar
  9. Landis, D., & Albert, R. D. (2012). Handbook of ethnic conflict: International perspectives. New York, NY: Springer.Google Scholar
  10. Leach, C. W. (2005). Against the notion of a new racism. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 15, 432–445.Google Scholar
  11. Lott, B. (1987). Sexist discrimination as distancing behavior: I. A laboratory demonstration. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 11, 47–58.Google Scholar
  12. Lott, B. (1989). Sexist discrimination as distancing behavior: II. Primetime television. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 13, 341–355.Google Scholar
  13. Lott, B. (2010). Multiculturalism and diversity: A social psychological perspective. West Sussex, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
  14. Lott, B., & Maluso, D. (Eds.). (1995). The social psychology of interpersonal discrimination. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  15. Nier, J. A. & Gaertner, S. L. (Eds.). (2012). The reality of contemporary discrimination in the United States: The consequences of hidden bias in real world contexts. Journal of Social Issues, 68(2).Google Scholar
  16. Pager, D., Western, B., & Bonikowski, B. (2009). Discrimination in a low-wage labor market: A field experiment. American Sociological Review, 774, 777–799.Google Scholar
  17. Pettigrew, T. F., Tropp, L. A., Wagner, U., & Christ, O. (2011). Recent advances in intergroup contact theory. International Journal of Intercultural Relationships, 35, 271–280.Google Scholar
  18. Quillian, L. (2006). New approaches to understanding racial prejudice and discrimination. Annual Review of Sociology, 32, 299–328.Google Scholar
  19. Shields, S. A. (2008). Gender: An intersectionality perspective. Sex Roles, 59, 301–311.Google Scholar
  20. Smedley, B. D., Stith, A. Y., & Nelson, A. R. (Eds.). (2003). Unequal treatment: Confronting racial and ethnic disparities in health care. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.Google Scholar
  21. Smith, L. (2005). Psychotherapy, classism, and the poor: Conspicuous by their absence. American Psychologist, 60, 687–696.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Yzerbyt, V., & Demoulin, S. (2010). Intergroup relations. In S. T. Fiske, D. T. Gilbert, & G. Lindzey (Eds.), Handbook of social psychology (5th ed., Vol. 2, pp. 1024–1083). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar

Online Resources

  1. Applied Research Center: Racial Justice through Media, Research and Leadership Development. http://www.arc.org
  2. Teaching Tolerance: A Project of the Southern Poverty Law Center. http://www.tolerance.org/magazine/archives

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of California – Santa CruzSanta CruzUSA
  2. 2.University of Rhode IslandKingstonUSA