Encyclopedia of Creativity, Invention, Innovation and Entrepreneurship

2013 Edition
| Editors: Elias G. Carayannis

Business Start-Up: From Emergence to Development

Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-3858-8_446

Synonyms

 Accompaniment;  Creation;  Growth

Entrepreneurship, viewed as either an academic or a practical field, is primarily made up of three interwoven mainstreams:
  • “Individual traits” of entrepreneur, typified as either a cautious owner-manager (J-B Say), or an audacious risk-taker (J-A Schumpeter 1943)

  • Global “spirit of enterprising” of Society, typified as either a positive attitude toward risk and innovation (Drucker 1985) or a free market ideology (Williamson 1985)

  • Last but not least, business creation, start-up and development

Academic research on this latter topic started during the sixties. It sharply increased with the industrial world crisis of the mid-seventies, requiring new public policies. By supporting new firms, Governments tried to reduce unemployment of either salaried workers, fired from big industrial concerns, or “disabled minorities” (Small Business Act). But they also designed to promote and develop new technologies, in activity parks, nurseries, clusters, and...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access

References

  1. Ansoff I. The new concept of corporate strategy. New York: Wiley; 1988.Google Scholar
  2. Audretsch D. The entrepreneurial society. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2007.Google Scholar
  3. Birley S, Westhead P. Growth and performance contrasts between “types” of small firms. Strategic Manage J. 1990;11:535–57.Google Scholar
  4. Birley S, Ng D, Godfrey A. The family and the business. Long Range Plann. 1999;32(6):598–608.Google Scholar
  5. Churchill NC, Lewis VL. The five stages of small business growth. Harv Bus Rev. 1983;61:30–50.Google Scholar
  6. Drucker P. Innovation and entrepreneurship. New York: Harper and Row; 1985.Google Scholar
  7. Kirzner IM. Competition and entrepreneurship. Chicago: Chicago University Press; 1973.Google Scholar
  8. Miles R, Snow C. Organizational strategy, structure and process. New York: Mc Graw-Hill; 1978.Google Scholar
  9. Mintzberg H. Strategy-making in three modes. Calif Manage Rev. 1973;XVI(2):44–53.Google Scholar
  10. Schumpeter J. Capitalism, socialism and democracy. New York: Harper and Row; 1943.Google Scholar
  11. Smith NR, Miner JB. Type of entrepreneur, of firm, and managerial motivation: implications for organizational life cycle theory. Strategic Manage J. 1983;4:325–40.Google Scholar
  12. Williamson O. The economic institutions of capitalism. New York: Free Press; 1985.Google Scholar

Further Reading

  1. Chan KF, Lau T. Are small business owner/managers really entrepreneurial? Entrep Reg Dev. 1993;5:359–67.Google Scholar
  2. Dodge RH, Fullerton S, Robbins JE. Stage of the organizational life cycle and competition as mediators of problem perception for small business. Strategic Manage J. 1994;15:121–34.Google Scholar
  3. Filion LJ. Operators and visionaries: differences in the entrepreneurial and managerial systems of two types of entrepreneurs. Int J Entrep Small Bus. 2004;1(1/2):35–55.Google Scholar
  4. Gibb A, Davies L. In pursuit of the frameworks of growth models of the small business. Int Small Bus J. 1990;9(1):15–31.Google Scholar
  5. Hay M, Kamshad K. Small firm growth: intentions, implementation and impediments. Bus Strategy Rev. 1994;5(3):49–68.Google Scholar
  6. Headd B. The characteristics of small-business employees. Mon Labor Rev. 2000;123:13–8.Google Scholar
  7. Marchesnay M, Julien P-A. The small firm, as a transaction space. Entrep Reg Dev. 1990;2(3):267–77.Google Scholar
  8. Perry C. Growth strategies for small firms: principles and case studies. Int Small Bus J. 1987;5(2):17–25.Google Scholar
  9. Russel MG, Sauber MH. Profiles of managerial activities in small firms. Strategic Manage J. 1995;16:551–64.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media LLC 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.ERFI, Université de MontpellierMontpelierFrance