Encyclopedia of Creativity, Invention, Innovation and Entrepreneurship

2013 Edition
| Editors: Elias G. Carayannis

Business Start-Up: From Emergence to Development

  • Michel Marchesnay
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-3858-8_446


 Accompaniment;  Creation;  Growth

Entrepreneurship, viewed as either an academic or a practical field, is primarily made up of three interwoven mainstreams:
  • “Individual traits” of entrepreneur, typified as either a cautious owner-manager (J-B Say), or an audacious risk-taker (J-A Schumpeter 1943)

  • Global “spirit of enterprising” of Society, typified as either a positive attitude toward risk and innovation (Drucker 1985) or a free market ideology (Williamson 1985)

  • Last but not least, business creation, start-up and development

Academic research on this latter topic started during the sixties. It sharply increased with the industrial world crisis of the mid-seventies, requiring new public policies. By supporting new firms, Governments tried to reduce unemployment of either salaried workers, fired from big industrial concerns, or “disabled minorities” (Small Business Act). But they also designed to promote and develop new technologies, in activity parks, nurseries, clusters, and...

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Further Reading

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media LLC 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.ERFI, Université de MontpellierMontpelierFrance