Encyclopedia of Creativity, Invention, Innovation and Entrepreneurship

2013 Edition
| Editors: Elias G. Carayannis

Proximity Relationships and Entrepreneurship

  • André Torre
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-3858-8_238


Proximity Relations at the Heart of Firms’ Strategies

In the present days of clusters, localized production systems, districts, or technopoles, it is not surprising that the question of proximities is raised with force in the analysis of firms’ strategies and the relations they form with their partners, competitors, and more generally with the economic and social environments in which they conduct their everyday activities. Moreover, this aspect has not escaped the makers of economic, industrial, or innovation policies, who unceasingly plead in favor of structures in which economic activities are concentrated, whether they be competitive clusters in France, industrial districts in Italy, technopoles and science parks in Britain and Japan, or the different types of clusters that exist all over the world (OECD 2001).

The studies devoted to the analysis of proximity relations are based on research situated at the intersection of industrial and spatial economics (Torre and...

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media LLC 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.AgroParistechUMR SAD-APTParisFrance