Encyclopedia of Creativity, Invention, Innovation and Entrepreneurship

2013 Edition
| Editors: Elias G. Carayannis

Partnerships and Entrepreneurship (Vol Entrepreneurship)

  • Delphine Gallaud
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-3858-8_236



Scholars have considered entrepreneurship only as a creation by an independent entrepreneur for a long time. However public policies reconsidered this view in the 1980s and encouraged the development of two new kinds of entrepreneurships: first, academic entrepreneurship during the 1990s, and second, corporate entrepreneurship (CE) in the following decade (Phan et al. 2009). At the end of the 1990s, public policies tried to improve the system of innovation and to speed up the conversion of fundamental research into commercial innovation. So, it encouraged the development of academic entrepreneurship (Nicolaou and Birley 2003). Academic entrepreneurship is a real breakdown with the traditional culture of university that focuses on the production of knowledge, and not on commercial purposes. Corporate entrepreneurship includes various kinds of organizational practices that allow the firm to develop new...

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media LLC 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.INRA CESAER (UMR 1041)Unité Mixte de Recherche INRA-AgrosupDijon CedexFrance