Encyclopedia of Creativity, Invention, Innovation and Entrepreneurship

2013 Edition
| Editors: Elias G. Carayannis

Business Climate and Entrepreneurialism

Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-3858-8_194


 Business relations;  Embeddedness;  Entrepreneurial opportunities;  Externalities;  Industrial atmosphere;  Organization;  Territory

The definition of the business climate is not simple and homogeneous. There exists no official definition. We can distinguish three kinds of definition. (1) The first is based on the opinion of entrepreneurs over the short term. National statistical offices question, for example every 3 months, entrepreneurs to know their opinion about the economic short-term period (evolution of demand, of production, of stocks, of prices, orders, their workforce, and so on). It is a qualitative indicator based on the personal opinion of domestic entrepreneurs. (2) The second definition consists of measuring macroeconomic indicatorsalso for a short-term period. For example, trend of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP), of domestic consumption, of exports, of domestic investments and of the public sector balance, and so on. This information is intended for...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Braudel F. Civilization and capitalism, 15th–18th century, vol. 1–3. 1st ed. Berkeley: University of California Press; 1992. 1979.Google Scholar
  2. Coase R. The nature of the firm. Economica. 1937;4:386–405.Google Scholar
  3. Granovetter M. Economic action and social structures. The problem of embeddedness. Am J Sociol. 1985;91(3):481–510.Google Scholar
  4. Kirzner I. Entrepreneurial discovery and the competitive market process. An Austrian approach. J Econ Lit. 1997;35(March):60–85.Google Scholar
  5. Marshall A. Industry and trade. London: Macmillan; 1919.Google Scholar
  6. Menger C. Principles of economics. 1st ed. Auburn: Ludwig von Mises Institute; 2007. 1871.Google Scholar
  7. Nelson N, Winter S. An evolutionary theory of economic change. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press; 1985.Google Scholar
  8. Pigou AC. The economy of welfare. 1st ed. Piscataway: Transaction Publishers; 2001. 1920.Google Scholar
  9. Schumpeter JA. The theory of economic development. 1st ed. Piscataway: Transaction Publishers; 1982. 1911.Google Scholar
  10. Schumpeter JA. Capitalism, socialism and democracy. 1st ed. New York: Harper Perennial Modern Classics; 2008. 1942.Google Scholar
  11. Simon H. Administrative behavior. A study of decision-making in administrative organizations. 1st ed. New York: The Free Press; 1997. 1947.Google Scholar
  12. Wallestrein I. World-systems analysis. An introduction. Durham: Duke University Press Books; 2004.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media LLC 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Research Unit on Industry and Innovation/CLERSE–CNRS (UMR 8019)University of Lille Nord de France, Research Network on InnovationDunkerqueFrance
  2. 2.Political EconomyResearch Unit on Industry and Innovation University, University of Littoral Côte d’OpaleDunkerqueFrance