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Brain Infections: Evidence-Based Neuroimaging

Reference work entry
Part of the Evidence-Based Imaging book series (Evidence-Based Imag.)

Abstract

Brain infection is usually caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites. Organisms can infect the brain via hematogenous spread (most commonly from the lungs), direct extension from the sinonasal cavity, direct implantation (instrumentation or trauma), and CSF spread from a spinal cord or spinal subarachnoid space infection. Less frequently, infections in the epidural or subdural spaces can also spread directly to the meninges and brain parenchyma. The organism causing an infection can often be predicted based on the patient’s age, geographic location, immune status, and clinical history (e.g., trauma, sinusitis, pneumonia). HIV-positive patients can acquire infection due to HIV itself or due to one or more of a myriad of opportunistic infections. In addition, these patients are susceptible to autoimmune conditions such as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) or acute demyelinating polyneuropathy during the initial and middle phases of HIV infection and neoplasm during the late phase of HIV infection.

Keywords

Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy Compute Tomography Protocol Moderate Evidence 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of NeuroradiologyMassachusetts General HospitalBostonUSA

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