Advertisement

Soft Tissue Lesions Involving Female Reproductive Organs

  • John F. FetschEmail author
  • William B. Laskin
Living reference work entry

Abstract

The most common benign mesenchymal tumor of the gynecologic tract is a leiomyoma, while the most frequent malignant mesenchymal neoplasms of this anatomic region in pediatric and adult patients are rhabdomyosarcoma and leiomyosarcoma, respectively. Because these entities are expertly covered elsewhere in this textbook, they are not discussed in this chapter. Instead, this section concentrates on the myriad of other less common mesenchymal processes that occasionally affect the female reproductive organs. We attempt to cover the better-documented and most relevant entities as comprehensively as space allows and include brief comments and/or references for rarer lesions. Supplemental data from the Tumor Registry of the former Armed Forces Institute of Pathology is included for selected topics. It is important to remember that some of the entities under discussion have only recently been recognized and remain works in progress. Readers are directed to standard soft tissue tumor texts for additional reading.

References

  1. Abbott JJ, Oliveira AM, Nascimento AG (2006) The prognostic significance of fibrosarcomatous transformation in dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. Am J Surg Pathol 30:436–443PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Abeler V, Nesland JM (1989) Alveolar soft-part sarcoma in the uterine cervix. Arch Pathol Lab Med 113:1179–1183PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Afenyi-Annan A, Paulino AF (2001) Abnormal uterine bleeding. Arch Pathol Lab Med 125:1389–1390PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Agaram NP, Sung YS, Zhang L et al (2015) Dichotomy of genetic abnormalities in PEComas with therapeutic implications. Am J Surg Pathol 39:813–825PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Agarossi A, Vago L, Lazzarin A et al (1991) Vulvar Kaposi’s sarcoma. A case report. Ann Oncol 2:609–610PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Ahern JK, Allen NH (1978) Cervical hemangioma: a case report and review of the literature. J Reprod Med 21:228–231PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Alassiri AH, Ali RH, Shen Y et al (2016) ETV6-NTRK3 is expressed in a subset of ALK-negative inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors. Am J Surg Pathol 40:1051–1061PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Albores-Saavedra J, Gilcrease M (1999) Glomus tumor of the uterine cervix. Int J Gynecol Pathol 18:69–72PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Allen PW, Dymock RB, MacCormac LB (1988) Superficial angiomyxomas with and without epithelial components. Report of 30 tumors in 28 patients. Am J Surg Pathol 12:519–530PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Altchek A, Deligdisch L, Norton K et al (2007) Prepubertal unilateral fibrous hyperplasia of the labium majus: report of eight cases and review of the literature. Obstet Gynecol 110:103–108PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Althausen AM, Kowalski DP, Ludwig ME et al (2000) Granular cell tumors: a new clinically important histologic finding. Gynecol Oncol 77:310–313PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Alvarez M, Cerezo L (1986) Ovarian cavernous hemangioma. Arch Pathol Lab Med 110:77–78PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Alvarez-Canas MC, Mayorga M, Fernandez F et al (1996) Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans of the vulva: clinico-pathological, immunohistochemical and flow cytometric study of a case. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 75:82–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ambani DS, White B, Kaplan AL et al (2006) A case of monophasic synovial sarcoma presenting as a vulvar mass. Gynecol Oncol 100:433–436PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Aranda FI, Laforga JB (1998) Nodular fasciitis of the vulva. Report of a case with immunohistochemical study. Pathol Res Pract 194:805–807PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. Argani P, Ladanyi M (2003) Recent advances in pediatric renal neoplasia. Adv Anat Pathol 10:243–260PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. Argani P, Antonescu CR, Illei PB et al (2001) Primary renal neoplasms with the ASPL-TFE3 gene fusion of alveolar soft part sarcoma: a distinctive tumor entity previously included among renal cell carcinomas of children and adolescents. Am J Pathol 159:179–192PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Argani P, Lal P, Hutchinson B et al (2003) Aberrant nuclear immunoreactivity for TFE3 in neoplasms with TFE3 gene fusions: a sensitive and specific immunohistochemical assay. Am J Surg Pathol 27:750–761PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. Argani P, Aulmann S, Illei PB et al (2010) A distinctive subset of PEComas harbors TFE3 gene fusions. Am J Surg Pathol 34:1395–1406PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. Argenta PA, Thomas S, Chura JC (2007) “Proximal-type” epithelioid sarcoma vs. malignant rhabdoid tumor of the vulva: a case report, review of the literature, and an argument for consolidation. Gynecol Oncol 107:130–135PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Audouin AF, Lopes P, Lenne Y (1988) Sarcoma de Kaposi du col utérin associé á un condylome atypique chez une femme transplantée cardiaque (lors du post-partum). Arch Anat Cytol Path 36:226–228Google Scholar
  22. Autio-Harmainen H, Apaja-Sarkkinen M, Martikainen J et al (1986) Production of basement membrane laminin and type IV collagen by tumors of striated muscle: an immunohistochemical study of rhabdomyosarcomas of different histologic types and a benign vaginal rhabdomyoma. Hum Pathol 17:1218–1224PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Aynardi JT, Kim SH, Barroeta JE (2016) Epithelioid glomus tumor of the uterine cervix: a case report and review. Int J Gynecol Pathol 35:275–278PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Azuno Y, Yaga K, Suehiro Y et al (2003) Inflammatory myoblastic tumor of the uterus and interleukin-6. Am J Obstet Gynecol 189:890–891PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Bancalari E, de Álava E, Tardío JC (2012) Primary vaginal Ewing sarcoma: case report and review of the literature. Int J Surg Pathol 20:305–310PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Banet N, Ning Y, Montgomery EA (2015) Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the placenta: a report of a novel lesion in 2 patients. Int J Gynecol Pathol 34:419–423PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Bennett JA, Sanada S, Selig MK et al (2015) Giant cell tumor of the uterus: a report of 3 cases with a spectrum of morphologic features. Int J Gynecol Pathol 34:340–350PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Bennett JA, Nardi V, Rouzbahman M et al (2017) Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the uterus: a clinicopathological, immunohistochemical, and molecular analysis of 13 cases highlighting their broad morphologic spectrum. Mod Pathol 30:1489–1503PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Bergh P, Meis-Kindblom JM, Gherlinzoni F et al (1999) Synovial sarcoma: identification of low and high risk groups. Cancer 85:2596–2607PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Bhandari RN, Dragun AE, Aguero EG et al (2006) External beam radiotherapy for perirectal angiomyxoma results in a dramatic clinical response and allows a patient to avoid abdominoperineal resection. Am J Clin Oncol 29:318–319PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Bhargava R, Shia J, Hummer AJ et al (2005) Distinction of endometrial stromal sarcomas from “hemangiopericytomatous” tumors using a panel of immunohistochemical stains. Mod Pathol 18:40–47PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Bhattacharya B, Dilworth HP, Iacobuzio-Donahue C et al (2005) Nuclear beta-catenin expression distinguishes deep fibromatosis from other benign and malignant fibroblastic and myofibroblastic lesions. Am J Surg Pathol 29:653–659PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Biedrzycki OJ, Singh N, Habeeb H et al (2007a) Solitary fibrous tumor of the female genital tract a case report and review of the literature. Int J Gynecol Pathol 26:259–264PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Biedrzycki OJ, Singh N, Faruqi A (2007b) Nodular fasciitis of the vulva with an unusually long clinical history; the importance of making this unexpected diagnosis in such an unusual site. Histopathology 51:547–550PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Bigby SM, Symmans PJ, Miller MV et al (2011) Aggressive angiomyxoma [corrected] of the female genital tract and pelvis – clinicopathologic features with immunohistochemical analysis. Int J Gynecol Pathol 30:505–513PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Billings SD, Folpe AL, Weiss SW (2003) Epithelioid sarcoma-like hemangioendothelioma. Am J Surg Pathol 27:48–57PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Billings SD, Giblen G, Fanburg-Smith JC (2005) Superficial low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (Evans tumor): a clinicopathologic analysis of 19 cases with a unique observation in the pediatric population. Am J Surg Pathol 29:204–210PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Blandamura S, Cruz J, Faure Vergara L et al (2003) Aggressive angiomyxoma: a second case of metastasis with patient’s death. Hum Pathol 34:1072–1074PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Blickstein I, Lurie S (1990) The gynaecological problems of neurofibromatosis. Aust N Z Obstet Gynaecol 30:380–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Bock JE, Andreasson B, Thorn A et al (1985) Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans of the vulva. Gynecol Oncol 20:129–135PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Boikos SA, Stratakis CA (2006) Carney complex: pathology and molecular genetics. Neuroendocrinology 83:189–199PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Boldorini R, Riboni F, Cristina S et al (2010) Primary vulvar Ewing’s sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor in a post-menopausal woman: a case report. Pathol Res Pract 15:476–479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Bonetti F, Martignoni G, Colato C et al (2001) Abdominopelvic sarcoma of perivascular epithelioid cells. Report of four cases in young women, one with tuberous sclerosis. Mod Pathol 14:563–568PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Bos GD, Pritchard DJ, Reiman HM et al (1988) Epithelioid sarcoma. An analysis of fifty-one cases. J Bone Joint Surg Am 70:862–870PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Brandfass RT, Everts-Suarez EA (1955) Lipomatous tumors of the uterus: a review of the world’s literature with report of a case of true lipoma. Am J Obstet Gynecol 70:359–367PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Brasfield RD, Das Gupta TK (1972) Von Recklinghausen’s disease: a clinicopathological study. Ann Surg 175:86–104PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Bridge JA, Kanamori M, Ma Z et al (2001) Fusion of the ALK gene to clathrin heavy chain gene, CLTC, in inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor. Am J Pathol 159:411–415PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Brooks JJ, LiVolsi VA (1987) Liposarcoma presenting on the vulva. Am J Obstet Gynecol 156:73–75PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Burch DJ, Hitchcock A, Masson GM (1994) Alveolar soft part sarcoma of the uterus: case report and review of the literature. Gynecol Oncol 54:91–94PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Busby JG (1952) Neurofibromatosis of the cervix. Am J Obstet Gynecol 63:674–675PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Calonje E, Fletcher CD (1996) Myoid differentiation in dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans and its fibrosarcomatous variant: clinicopathologic analysis of 5 cases. J Cutan Pathol 23:30–36PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Calonje E, Guerin D, McCormick D et al (1999) Superficial angiomyxoma: clinicopathologic analysis of a series of distinctive but poorly recognized cutaneous tumors with tendency for recurrence. Am J Surg Pathol 23:910–917PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Cambruzzi E, Pegas KL, Milani DM et al (2010) Angiosarcoma arising in an ovarian fibroma: a case report. Pathol Res Int 2010:842592CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Cao D, Srodon M, Montgomery EA et al (2005) Lipomatous variant of angiomyofibroblastoma: report of two cases and review of the literature. Int J Gynecol Pathol 24:196–200PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Carinelli SG, Giudici MN, Brioschi D et al (1990) Alveolar soft part sarcoma of the vagina. Tumori 76:77–80PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Carlson JW, Fletcher CD (2007) Immunohistochemistry for beta-catenin in the differential diagnosis of spindle cell lesions: analysis of a series and review of the literature. Histopathology 51:509–514PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Carney JA, Headington JT, Su WP (1986) Cutaneous myxomas. A major component of the complex of myxomas, spotty pigmentation, and endocrine overactivity. Arch Dermatol 122:790–798PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Carter JM, Weiss SW, Linos K et al (2014) Superficial CD34-positive fibroblastic tumor: report of 18 cases of a distinctive low-grade mesenchymal neoplasm of intermediate (borderline) malignancy. Mod Pathol 27:294–302PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Cenacchi G, Pasquinelli G, Montanaro L et al (1998) Primary endocervical extraosseous Ewing’s sarcoma/PNET. Int J Gynecol Pathol 17:83–88PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Cerri A, Gianni C, Corbellino M et al (1998) Lymphangiosarcoma of the pubic region: a rare complication arising in congenital non-hereditary lymphedema. Eur J Dermatol 8:511–514PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Cetiner H, Kir G, Gelmann EP et al (2009) Primary vulvar Ewing sarcoma/primitive peripheral neuroectodermal tumor: a report of 2 cases and review of the literature. Int J Gynecol Cancer 19:1131–1136PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Chamberlain BK, McClain CM, Gonzalez RS et al (2014) Alveolar soft part sarcoma and granular cell tumor: an immunohistochemical comparison study. Hum Pathol 45:1039–1044PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Chan WW, SenGupta SK (1991) Postirradiation angiosarcoma of the vaginal vault. Arch Pathol Lab Med 115:527–528PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Chan IM, Hon E, Ngai SW et al (2000) Aggressive angiomyxoma in females: is radical resection the only option? Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 79:216–220PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Chapman GW, Benda J, Williams T (1984) Alveolar soft-part sarcoma of the vagina. Gynecol Oncol 18:125–129PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Char G, Hanchard B, Manjoo RB (1982) Neurofibromatosis of the cervix uteri. West Indian Med J 31:90–92PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Chase DR, Enzinger FM (1985) Epithelioid sarcoma. Diagnosis, prognostic indicators, and treatment. Am J Surg Pathol 9:241–263PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Cheah AL, Billings SD, Goldblum JR et al (2014) STAT6 rabbit monoclonal antibody is a robust diagnostic tool for the distinction of solitary fibrous tumour from its mimics. Pathology 46:389–395PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Chen E, Fletcher CD (2010) Cellular angiofibroma with atypia or sarcomatous transformation: clinicopathologic analysis of 13 cases. Am J Surg Pathol 34:707–714PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. Chen G, Folpe AL, Colby TV et al (2011) Angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma: unusual sites and unusual morphology. Mod Pathol 24:1560–1570PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Chen BJ, Marino-Enriquez A, Fletcher CD et al (2012) Loss of retinoblastoma protein expression in spindle cell/pleomorphic lipomas and genetically related tumors: an immunohistochemical study with diagnostic implications. Am J Surg Pathol 36:1119–1128PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Cheng L, Scheithauer BW, Leibovich BC (1999) Neurofibroma of the urinary bladder. Cancer 86:505–513PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Chestnut DH, Szpak CA, Fortier KJ et al (1988) Uterine hemangioma associated with infertility. South Med J 81:926–928PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Chien AJ, Freeby JA, Win TT et al (1998) Aggressive angiomyxoma of the female pelvis: sonographic, CT, and MR findings. AJR Am J Roentgenol 171:530–531PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Chiodi NE, Siegel IA, Guerin PF et al (1957) Granular-cell myoblastoma of the vulva and lower respiratory tract: report of a case. Obstet Gynecol 9:472–480PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Chmielecki J, Crago AM, Rosenberg M et al (2013) Whole-exome sequencing identifies a recurrent NAB2-STAT6 fusion in solitary fibrous tumors. Nat Genet 45:131–132PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Chu PW, Liu JY, Peng YJ et al (2006) Solitary fibrous tumor of the uterus. Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 45:350–352PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Chuang WY, Yeh CJ, Jung SM et al (2007) Plexiform schwannoma of the clitoris. APMIS 115:889–890PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Chugh R, Wathen JK, Patel SR et al (2010) Efficacy of imatinib in aggressive fibromatosis: results of a phase II multicenter Sarcoma Alliance for Research through Collaboration (SARC) trial. Clin Cancer Res 16:4884–4891PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Clement PB (1978) Chondrosarcoma of the uterus: report of a case and review of the literature. Hum Pathol 9:726–732PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Clement PB (1988) Postoperative spindle-cell nodule of the endometrium. Arch Pathol Lab Med 112:566–568PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Cohen PR, Yaw JR, Tovell HM (1989) Angiokeratoma of the vulva: diagnosis and review of the literature. Obstet Gynecol Surv 44:339–346PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Colgan TJ, Dardick I, O’Connell G (1991) Paraganglioma of the vulva. Int J Gynecol Pathol 10:203–208PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Comstock CH, Monticello ML, Johnson TW et al (2005) Cavernous hemangioma: diffuse enlarged venous spaces within the myometrium in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 106:1212–1214PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Conlon N, Soslow RA, Murali R (2015) Perivascular epithelioid tumours (PEComas) of the gynaecological tract. J Clin Pathol 68:418–426PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Contreras AL, Malpica A (2009) Angiosarcoma arising in mature cystic teratoma of the ovary: a case report and review of the literature. Int J Gynecol Pathol 28:453–457PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Cook CL, Sanfilippo JS, Verdi GD et al (1989) Capillary hemangioma of the vagina and urethra in a child: response to short-term steroid therapy. Obstet Gynecol 73:883–885PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Cormio G, Cormio L, Marzullo A et al (1997) Fibromatosis of the female pelvis. Ann Chir Gynaecol 86:84–86PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Cunningham MJ, Brooks JS, Noumoff JS (1994) Treatment of primary ovarian angiosarcoma with ifosfamide and doxorubicin. Gynecol Oncol 53:265–268PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Curry JL, Olejnik JL, Wojcik EM (2001) Cellular angiofibroma of the vulva with DNA ploidy analysis. Int J Gynecol Pathol 20:200–203PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Czuczwar P, Stepniak A, Szkodziak P et al (2016) Unusual location of a plexiform neurofibroma in the fallopian tube: a case report. J Obstet Gynaecol Res 42:1618–1622PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. D’Antonio A, Caleo A, Boscaino A et al (2010) Vulvar lymphoedematous pseudotumours mistaken for aggressive angiomyxoma: report of two cases. Gynecol Obstet Investig 69:212–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Dane B, Dane C, Basaran S et al (2010) Vaginal schwannoma in a case with uterine myoma. Ann Diagn Pathol 14:137–139PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Davani M, Chablani VN, Saba PR (1998) Aggressive angiomyxoma of pelvic soft tissues: MR imaging appearance. AJR Am J Roentgenol 170:1113–1114PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Davis GD, Patton WS (1983) Capillary hemangioma of the cervix and vagina: management with carbon dioxide laser. Obstet Gynecol 62:95S–96SPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Davos I, Abell MR (1976) Sarcomas of the vagina. Obstet Gynecol 47:342–350PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Dawood MY, Teoh ES, Ratnam SS (1972) Ruptured haemangioma of a gravid uterus. J Obstet Gynaecol Br Commonw 79:474–475PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Daya D, Lukka H, Clement PB (1992) Primitive neuroectodermal tumors of the uterus: a report of four cases. Hum Pathol 23:1120–1129PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. De Young B, Bitterman P, Lack EE (1992) Primary osteosarcoma of the uterus: report of a case with immunohistochemical study. Mod Pathol 5:212–215PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Demicco EG, Wagner MJ, Maki RG et al (2017) Risk assessment in solitary fibrous tumors: validation and refinement of a risk stratification model. Mod Pathol 30:1433–1442PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. den Bakker MA, Ansink AC, Ewing-Graham PC (2006) “Cutaneous-type” angiosarcoma arising in a mature cystic teratoma of the ovary. J Clin Pathol 59:658–660CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Devaney K, Tavassoli FA (1991) Immunohistochemistry as a diagnostic aid in the interpretation of unusual mesenchymal tumors of the uterus. Mod Pathol 4:225–231PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Dharkar DD, Kraft JR, Gangadharam D (1981) Uterine lipomas. Arch Pathol Lab Med 105:43–45PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Di Sant’Agnese PA, Knowles DM 2nd (1980) Extracardiac rhabdomyoma: a clinicopathologic study and review of the literature. Cancer 46:780–789PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  105. Dickson MA, Schwartz GK, Antonescu CR et al (2013) Extrarenal perivascular epithelioid cell tumors (PEComas) respond to mTOR inhibition: clinical and molecular correlates. Int J Cancer 132:1711–1717PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Doyle LA, Vivero M, Fletcher CD et al (2014) Nuclear expression of STAT6 distinguishes solitary fibrous tumor from histologic mimics. Mod Pathol 27:390–395PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Drachenberg CB, Faust FJ, Borkowski A et al (1994) Epithelioid angiosarcoma of the uterus arising in a leiomyoma with associated ovarian and tubal angiomatosis. Am J Clin Pathol 102:388–389PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Dreux N, Marty M, Chibon F et al (2010) Value and limitation of immunohistochemical expression of HMGA2 in mesenchymal tumors: about a series of 1052 cases. Mod Pathol 23:1657–1666PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. DuBay D, Cimmino V, Lowe L et al (2004) Low recurrence rate after surgery for dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans: a multidisciplinary approach from a single institution. Cancer 100:1008–1016PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Ducatman BS, Scheithauer BW, Piepgras DG et al (1986) Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors: a clinicopathologic study of 120 cases. Cancer 57:2006–2021PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  111. Dundr P, Němejcová K, Laco J et al (2017) Anastomosing hemangioma of the ovary: a clinicopathologic study of six cases with stromal luteinization. Pathol Oncol Res 23:717–722PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  112. Duran B, Guvenal T, Yildiz E et al (2004) An unusual cause of adnexal mass: fallopian tube schwannoma. Gynecol Oncol 92:343–346PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  113. Eastley N, McCulloch T, Esler C et al (2016) Extra-abdominal desmoid fibromatosis: a review of management, current guidance and unanswered questions. Eur J Surg Oncol 42:1071–1083PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  114. Edelweiss M, Malpica A (2010) Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans of the vulva: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 13 cases. Am J Surg Pathol 34:393–400PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  115. Ellison DW, MacKenzie IZ, McGee JO (1992) Cellular schwannoma of the vagina. Gynecol Oncol 46:119–121PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  116. Emoto M, Tamura R, Izumi H et al (1997) Sonodynamic changes after transcatheter arterial embolization in a vaginal hemangioma: case report. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 10:66–67PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  117. Enzinger FM (1970) Epithelioid sarcoma. A sarcoma simulating a granuloma or a carcinoma. Cancer 26:1029–1041PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  118. Enzinger FM, Smith BH (1976) Hemangiopericytoma. An analysis of 106 cases. Hum Pathol 7:61–82PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  119. Erickson-Johnson RM, Chou MM, Evers BR et al (2011) Nodular fasciitis: a novel model of transient neoplasia induced by MYH9-USP6 gene fusion. Lab Investig 91:1427–1433PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  120. Espat NJ, Lewis JJ, Leung D et al (2002) Conventional hemangiopericytoma: modern analysis of outcome. Cancer 95:1746–1751PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  121. Euscher ED, Deavers MT, Lopez-Terrada D et al (2008) Uterine tumors with neuroectodermal differentiation: a series of 17 cases and review of the literature. Am J Surg Pathol 32:219–228PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  122. Fadare O (2006) Uncommon sarcomas of the uterine cervix: a review of selected entities. Diagn Pathol 1:30PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Fadare O (2008a) Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) of the uterus: an outcome-based clinicopathologic analysis of 41 reported cases. Adv Anat Pathol 15:63–75PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  124. Fadare O (2008b) Uterine PEComa: appraisal of a controversial and increasingly reported mesenchymal neoplasm. Int Semin Surg Oncol 5:7PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Fadare O, Parkash V, Yilmaz Y et al (2004) Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) of the uterine cervix associated with intraabdominal “PEComatosis”: a clinicopathologic study with comparative genomic hybridization analysis. World J Surg Oncol 2:35PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Fadare O, Bossuyt V, Martel M et al (2006a) Primary osteosarcoma of the ovary: a case report and literature review. Int J Gynecol Pathol 26:21–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Fadare O, Ghofrani M, Stamatakos MD et al (2006b) Mesenchymal lesions of the uterine cervix. Pathol Case Rev 11:140–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Fadare O, Bonvicino A, Martel M et al (2010) Pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcoma of the uterine corpus: a clinicopathologic study of 4 cases and a review of the literature. Int J Gynecol Pathol 29:122–134PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  129. Fanburg-Smith JC, Meis-Kindblom JM, Fante R et al (1998) Malignant granular cell tumor of soft tissue: diagnostic criteria and clinicopathologic correlation. Am J Surg Pathol 22:779–794PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  130. Ferguson SE, Gerald W, Barakat RR et al (2007) Clinicopathologic features of rhabdomyosarcoma of gynecologic origin in adults. Am J Surg Pathol 31:382–389PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  131. Fernández-Aguilar S, Fayt I, Noel JC (2004) Spindle cell vulvar hemangiomatosis associated with enchondromatosis: a rare variant of Maffucci’s syndrome. Int J Gynecol Pathol 23:68–70PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Fetsch JF, Laskin WB, Lefkowitz M et al (1996) Aggressive angiomyxoma: a clinicopathologic study of 29 female patients. Cancer 78:79–90PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Fetsch JF, Laskin WB, Tavassoli FA (1997) Superficial angiomyxoma (cutaneous myxoma): a clinicopathologic study of 17 cases arising in the genital region. Int J Gynecol Pathol 16:325–334PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Fine BA, Munoz AK, Litz CE et al (2001) Primary medical management of recurrent aggressive angiomyxoma with a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist. Gynecol Oncol 81:120–122PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Fingerland A (1938) Ganglioneuroma of the cervix uteri. J Pathol Bacteriol 47:631–634CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Fischer G, Odunsi K, Lele S et al (2006) Ovarian primary primitive neuroectodermal tumor coexisting with endometrioid adenocarcinoma: a case report. Int J Gynecol Pathol 25:151–154PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Fisher C (2004) Myofibroblastic malignancies. Adv Anat Pathol 11:190–201PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  138. Fisher C (2006) Epithelioid sarcoma of Enzinger. Adv Anat Pathol 13:114–121PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  139. Fisher C, Folpe AL, Hashimoto H et al (2004) Intra-abdominal synovial sarcoma: a clinicopathological study. Histopathology 45:245–253PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Fishman A, Girtanner RE, Kaplan AL (1996) Aggressive fibromatosis of the female pelvis. A case report and review of the literature. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol 17:208–211PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  141. Fletcher CD, Tsang WY, Fisher C et al (1992) Angiomyofibroblastoma of the vulva. A benign neoplasm distinct from aggressive angiomyxoma. Am J Surg Pathol 16:373–382PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  142. Flint A, Gikas PW, Roberts JA (1985) Alveolar soft part sarcoma of the uterine cervix. Gynecol Oncol 22:263–267PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  143. Flucke U, van Krieken JH, Mentzel T (2011) Cellular angiofibroma: analysis of 25 cases emphasizing its relationship to spindle cell lipoma and mammary-type myofibroblastoma. Mod Pathol 24:82–89PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  144. Folpe AL, Mentzel T, Lehr HA et al (2005) Perivascular epithelioid cell neoplasms of soft tissue and gynecologic origin: a clinicopathologic study of 26 cases and review of the literature. Am J Surg Pathol 29:1558–1575PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  145. Folpe AL, Schoolmeester JK, McCluggage WG et al (2015) SMARCB1-deficient vulvar neoplasms: a clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular genetic study of 14 cases. Am J Surg Pathol 39:836–849PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  146. Fong YE, López-Terrada D, Zhai QJ (2008) Primary Ewing sarcoma/peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the vulva. Hum Pathol 39:1535–1539PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  147. Foschini MP, Eusebi V, Tison V (1989) Alveolar soft part sarcoma of the cervix uteri. A case report. Pathol Res Pract 184:354–358PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  148. Fuehrer NE, Keeney GL, Ketterling RP et al (2012) ALK-1 protein expression and ALK gene rearrangements aid in the diagnosis of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors of the female genital tract. Arch Pathol Lab Med 136:623–626PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  149. Fukunaga M (2000) Atypical solitary fibrous tumor of the vulva. Int J Gynecol Pathol 19:164–168PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  150. Fukunaga M, Nomura K, Matsumoto K et al (1997) Vulval angiomyofibroblastoma. Clinicopathologic analysis of six cases. Am J Clin Pathol 107:45–51PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  151. Gal R, Dekel A, Ben-David M et al (1988) Granular cell myoblastoma of the cervix. Case report. Br J Obstet Gyneacol 95:720–722CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Ganesan R, McCluggage WG, Hirschowitz L et al (2005) Superficial myofibroblastoma of the lower female genital tract: report of a series including tumours with a vulvar location. Histopathology 46:137–143PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  153. Gantchev S (1997) Vascular abnormalities of the uterus, concerning a case of diffuse cavernous angiomatosis of the uterus. Gen Diagn Pathol 143:71–74PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  154. Gehrig PA, Fowler WC Jr, Lininger RA (2000) Ovarian capillary hemangioma presenting as an adnexal mass with massive ascites and elevated CA-125. Gynecol Oncol 76:130–132PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  155. Gengler C, Guillou L (2006) Solitary fibrous tumour and haemangiopericytoma: evolution of a concept. Histopathology 48:63–74PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  156. Gersell DJ, Fulling KH (1989) Localized neurofibromatosis of the female genitourinary tract. Am J Surg Pathol 13:873–878PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  157. Ghorbani RP, Malpica A, Ayala AG (1999) Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans of the vulva: clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical analysis of four cases, one with fibrosarcomatous change, and review of the literature. Int J Gynecol Pathol 18:366–373PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  158. Gifford RR, Birch HW (1973) Granular cell myoblastoma of multicentric origin involving the vulva: a case report. Am J Obstet Gynecol 117:184–187PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  159. Gilks CB, Taylor GP, Clement PB (1987) Inflammatory pseudotumor of the uterus. Int J Gynecol Pathol 6:275–286PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  160. Giordano G, D’Adda T, Varotti E et al (2016) Primary alveolar soft part sarcoma of uterine corpus: a case report with immunohistochemical, ultrastructural study and review of literature. World J Surg Oncol 14:24PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Gloster HM Jr, Harris KR, Roenigk RK (1996) A comparison between Mohs micrographic surgery and wide surgical excision for the treatment of dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. J Am Acad Dermatol 35:82–87PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  162. Goette DK, Detlefs RL (1985) Postirradiation angiosarcoma. J Am Acad Dermatol 12:922–926PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  163. Gökden N, Dehner LP, Zhu X et al (2003) Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans of the vulva and groin: detection of COL1A1-PDGFB fusion transcripts by RT-PCR. J Cutan Pathol 30:190–195PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  164. Gold BM (1972) Neurofibromatosis of the bladder and vagina. Am J Obstet Gynecol 113:1055–1056PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  165. Gold JH, Bossen EH (1976) Benign vaginal rhabdomyoma: a light and electron microscopic study. Cancer 37:2283–2294PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  166. Gold JS, Antonescu CR, Hajdu C et al (2002) Clinicopathologic correlates of solitary fibrous tumors. Cancer 94:1057–1068PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  167. Goldberg JM, Gavcovich T, Saigal G et al (2014) Extended progression-free survival in two patients with alveolar soft part sarcoma exposed to tivantinib. J Clin Oncol 32:e114–e116PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Gordon MD, Weilert M, Ireland K (1996) Plexiform neurofibromatosis involving the uterine cervix, endometrium, myometrium, and ovary. Obstet Gynecol 88:699–701PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  169. Granter SR, Nucci MR, Fletcher CD (1997) Aggressive angiomyxoma: reappraisal of its relationship to angiomyofibroblastoma in a series of 16 cases. Histopathology 30:3–10PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Gray GF Jr, Glick AD, Kurtin PJ et al (1986) Alveolar soft part sarcoma of the uterus. Hum Pathol 17:297–300PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Griffin CA, Hawkins AL, Dvorak C et al (1999) Recurrent involvement of 2p23 in inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors. Cancer Res 59:2776–2780PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  172. Gücer F, Özyilmaz F, Balkanli-Kaplan P et al (2004) Ovarian hemangioma presenting with hyperandrogenism and endometrial cancer: a case report. Gynecol Oncol 94:821–824PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  173. Guillou L, Lamoureux E, Masse S et al (1991) Alveolar soft-part sarcoma of the uterine corpus: histological, immunocytochemical, and ultrastructural study of a case. Vircows Archiv A Pathol Anat 418:467–471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Guillou L, Wadden C, Coindre JM et al (1997) “Proximal-type” epithelioid sarcoma, a distinctive aggressive neoplasm showing rhabdoid features. Clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural study of a series. Am J Surg Pathol 21:130–146PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  175. Guillou L, Gebhard S, Coindre JM (2000) Orbital and extraorbital giant cell angiofibroma: a giant cell-rich variant of solitary fibrous tumor? Clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical analysis of a series in favor of a unifying concept. Am J Surg Pathol 24:971–979PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Guillou L, Benhattar J, Bonichon F et al (2004) Histologic grade, but not SYT-SSX fusion type, is an important prognostic factor in patients with synovial sarcoma: a multicenter, retrospective analysis. J Clin Oncol 22:4040–4050PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Guirguis A, Kanbour-Shakir A, Kelley J (2007) Epithelioid angiosarcoma of the mons after chemoradiation for vulvar cancer. Int J Gynecol Pathol 26:265–268PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Gupta R, Singh S, Nigam S et al (2006) Benign vascular tumors of the female genital tract. Int J Gynecol Cancer 16:1195–1200PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Gusdon JP (1965) Hemangioma of the cervix: four new cases and a review. Am J Obstet Gynecol 91:204–209PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Gutmann DH, Aylsworth A, Carey JC et al (1997) The diagnostic evaluation and multidisciplinary management of neurofibromatosis 1 and neurofibromatosis 2. JAMA 278:51–57PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Gwavava NJ, Traub AI (1980) A neurilemmoma of the cervix. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 87:444–446PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Haimes JD, Stewart CJR, Kudlow BA et al (2017) Uterine inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors frequently harbor ALK fusions with IGFBP5 and THBS1. Am J Surg Pathol 41:773–780PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Halling AC, Wollan PC, Pritchard DJ et al (1996) Epithelioid sarcoma: a clinicopathologic review of 55 cases. Mayo Clin Proc 71:636–642PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Hanafy A, Lee RM, Peterson CM (1997) Schwannoma presenting as a Bartholin’s gland abscess. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 37:483–484PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Haraoka M, Naito S, Kumazawa J (1988) Clitoral involvement by neurofibromatosis: a case report and review of the literature. J Urol 139:95–96PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Hardisson D, Simón RS, Burgos E (2001) Primary osteosarcoma of the uterine corpus: report of a case with immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study. Gynecol Oncol 82:181–186PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Hasagawa T, Matsuno Y, Shimoda T et al (1999) Extrathoracic solitary fibrous tumors: their histological variability and potentially aggressive behavior. Hum Pathol 30:1464–1473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Hasegawa T, Matsuno Y, Shimoda T et al (2001) Proximal-type epithelioid sarcoma: a clinicopathologic study of 20 cases. Mod Pathol 14:655–663PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Hassan A, Bennet A, Bhalla S et al (2003) Paraganglioma of the vagina: report of a case, including immunohistochemical and ultrastructural findings. Int J Gynecol Pathol 22:404–406PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Heimann P, Devalck C, Debusscher C et al (1998) Alveolar soft-part sarcoma: further evidence by FISH for involvement of chromosome band 17q25. Genes Chromosomes Cancer 23:194–197PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Hendrickson MR, Scheithauer BW (1986) Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the endometrium: report of two cases, one with electron microscopic observations. Int J Gynecol Pathol 5:249–259PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Herszkowicz L, dos Santos RG, Alves EV et al (2001) Benign neonatal hemangiomatosis with mucosal involvement. Arch Dermatol 137:828–829PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. Hines JF, Compton DM, Stacy CC et al (1990) Pure primary osteosarcoma of the ovary presenting as an extensively calcified adnexal mass: a case report and review of the literature. Gynecol Oncol 39:259–263PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Holloway CL, Russell AH, Muto M et al (2007) Synovial cell sarcoma of the vulva: multimodality treatment incorporating preoperative external-beam radiation, hemivulvectomy, flap reconstruction, interstitial brachytherapy, and chemotherapy. Gynecol Oncol 104:253–256PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Hoot AC, Russo P, Judkins AR et al (2004) Immunohistochemical analysis of hSNF5/INI1 distinguishes renal and extra-renal malignant rhabdoid tumors from other pediatric soft tissue tumors. Am J Surg Pathol 28:1485–1491PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Hornick JL, Dal Cin P, Fletcher CD (2009) Loss of INI1 expression is characteristic of both conventional and proximal-type epithelioid sarcoma. Am J Surg Pathol 33:542–550PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Hornick JL, Fletcher CD et al (2011) Pseudomyogenic hemangioendothelioma: a distinctive, often multicentric tumor with indolent behavior. Am J Surg Pathol 35:190–201PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Horowitz IR, Copas P, Majmudar B (1995) Granular cell tumors of the vulva. Am J Obstet Gynecol 173:1710–1714PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Howitt BE, Fletcher CDM (2016) Mammary-type myofibroblastoma: a clinicopathologic characterization in a series of 143 cases. Am J Surg Pathol 40:361–367PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Hruban RH, Shiu MH, Senie RT et al (1990) Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors of the buttock and lower extremity. A study of 43 cases. Cancer 66:1253–1265PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  201. Huang HJ, Yamabe T, Tagawa H (1983) A solitary neurilemmoma of the clitoris. Gynecol Oncol 15:103–110PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  202. Inoue T, Kato H, Yoshikawa K et al (2004) Retroperitoneal schwannoma bearing at the right vaginal wall. J Obstet Gynaecol Res 30:454–457PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  203. Irving JA, Lerwill MF, Young RH (2005) Gastrointestinal stromal tumors metastatic to the ovary: a report of five cases. Am J Surg Pathol 29:920–926PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  204. Issa PY, Salem PA, Brihi E et al (1980) Eosinophilic granuloma with involvement of the female genitalia. Am J Obstet Gynecol 137:608–612PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  205. Iversen UM (1996) Two cases of benign vaginal rhabdomyoma. Case reports. APMIS 104:575–578PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  206. Iwasa Y, Fletcher CD (2004a) Distinctive prepubertal vulvar fibroma: a hitherto unrecognized mesenchymal tumor of prepubertal girls: analysis of 11 cases. Am J Surg Pathol 28:1601–1608PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  207. Iwasa Y, Fletcher CD (2004b) Cellular angiofibroma: clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical analysis of 51 cases. Am J Surg Pathol 28:1426–1435PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  208. Jagadha V, Srinivasan K, Panchacharam P (1985) Glomus tumor of the clitoris. N Y State J Med 85:611PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  209. Janinis J, Patriki M, Vini L et al (2003) The pharmacological treatment of aggressive fibromatosis: a systematic review. Ann Oncol 14:181–190PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  210. Jelinek JA, Stelzer KJ, Conrad E et al (2001) The efficacy of radiotherapy as postoperative treatment for desmoid tumors. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 50:121–125PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Jylling AM, Jørgensen L, Hølund B (1999) Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma in combination with hemangiosarcoma in the ovary. Pathol Oncol Res 5:318–319PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Kapadia SB, Norris HJ (1993) Rhabdomyoma of the vagina. Mod Pathol 6:75AGoogle Scholar
  213. Kardhashi A, Assunta Deliso M, Renna A et al (2012) Benign granular cell tumor of the vulva: first report of multiple cases in a family. Gynecol Obstet Investig 73:341–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Kargi HA, Özer E, Gökden N (1995) Inflammatory pseudotumor of the uterus: a case report. Tumori 81:454–456PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  215. Kasashima S, Minato H, Kobayashi M et al (2007) Alveolar soft part sarcoma of the endometrium with expression of CD10 and hormone receptors. APMIS 115:861–865PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Katz VL, Askin FB, Bosch BD (1986) Glomus tumor of the vulva: a case report. Obstet Gynecol 67:43S–45SPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Kawauchi S, Fukuda T, Miyamoto S et al (1998) Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the ovary confirmed by CD99 immunostaining, karyotypic analysis, and RT-PCR for EWS/FLI-1 chimeric mRNA. Am J Surg Pathol 22:1417–1422PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  218. Kay S, Schneider V (1985) Reactive spindle cell nodule of the endocervix simulating uterine sarcoma. Int J Gynecol Pathol 4:255–257PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. Keel SB, Clement PB, Prat J et al (1998) Malignant schwannoma of the uterine cervix: a study of three cases. Int J Gynecol Pathol 17:223–230PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. Kelling K, Noack F, Altgassen C et al (2012) Primary metastasized extraskeletal Ewing sarcoma of the vulva: report of a case and review of the literature. Arch Gynecol Obstet 285:785–789PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Kemmann E, Conrad P, Chen CK et al (1977) Pelvic neurilemmoma. Report of a case, electron microscopic studies, and review of the literature. Gynecol Oncol 5:387–395PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Kenerson H, Folpe AL, Takayama TK et al (2007) Activation of the mTOR pathway in sporadic angiomyolipomas and other perivascular epithelioid cell neoplasms. Hum Pathol 38:1361–1371PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. Khosla D, Rai B, Patel FD et al (2014) Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the uterine cervix diagnosed during pregnancy: a rare case with review of literature. J Obstet Gynaecol Res 40:878–882PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Kim DH, Goldsmith HS, Quan SH et al (1971) Intra-abdominal desmoid tumor. Cancer 27:1041–1045PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. Kim MK, Huh SJ, Kim DY et al (1998) Secondary angiosarcoma following irradiation – case report and review of the literature. Radiat Med 16:55–60PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  226. Kim KJ, Jang BW, Lee SK et al (2004) A case of peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the ovary. Int J Gynecol Cancer 14:370–372PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. Kirkham YA, Yarbrough CM, Pippi Salle JL et al (2013) A rare case of inguinolabial lipoblastoma in a 13- month-old female. J Pediatr Urol 9:E64–E67PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. Kleinman GM, Young RH, Scully GM (1993) Primary neuroectodermal tumors of the ovary. A report of 25 cases. Am J Surg Pathol 17:764–778PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. Kobayashi T, Yamazaki T, Takahashi M (1999) Characteristic radiologic findings for cavernous hemangioma of the uterus. AJR Am J Roentgenol 172:1147–1148PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. Kohorn EL, Merino MJ, Goldenhersh M (1986) Vulvar pain and dyspareunia due to glomus tumor. Obstet Gynecol 67:41S–42SPubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  231. Konrad EA, Meister P, Hübner G (1982) Extracardiac rhabdomyoma: report of different types with light microscopic and ultrastructural studies. Cancer 49:898–907PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  232. Kopolovic J, Weiss DB, Dolberg L et al (1987) Alveolar soft-part sarcoma of the female genital tract. Case report with ultrastructural findings. Arch Gynecol 240:125–129PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  233. Kruse AJ, Sep S, Slangen BF et al (2014) Angiosarcomas of primary gynecologic origin: a clinicopathologic review and quantitative analysis of survival. Int J Gynecol Cancer 24:4–12PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  234. Kryvenko ON, Gupta NS, Meier FA et al (2011) Anastomosing hemangioma of the genitourinary system: eight cases in the kidney and ovary with immunohistochemical and ultrastructural analysis. Am J Clin Pathol 136:450–457PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  235. Laartz BW, Cooper C, Degryse A et al (2005) Wolf in sheep’s clothing: advanced Kaposi sarcoma mimicking vulvar abscess. South Med J 98:475–477PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  236. Lack EE, Worsham GF, Callihan MD et al (1980) Granular cell tumor: a clinicopathologic study of 110 patients. J Surg Oncol 13:301–316PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  237. Ladanyi M, Lui MY, Antonescu CR et al (2001) The der(17)t(X;17)(p11;q25) of human alveolar soft part sarcoma fuses the TFE3 transcription factor gene to ASPL, a novel gene at 17q25. Oncogene 4:48–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. Ladanyi M, Antonescu CR, Drobnjak M et al (2002) The precrystalline cytoplasmic granules of alveolar soft part sarcoma contain monocarboxylate transporter 1 and CD147. Am J Pathol 160:1215–1221PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. Lambrou NC, Mirhashemi R, Wolfson A et al (2002) Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor of the vulva: a multimodal treatment approach. Gynecol Oncol 85:365–371PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  240. Laskin WB, Fetsch JF, Tavassoli FA (1997) Angiomyofibroblastoma of the female genital tract: analysis of 17 cases including a lipomatous variant. Hum Pathol 28:1046–1055PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. Laskin WB, Fetsch JF, Mostofi FK (1998) Angiomyofibroblastomalike tumor of the male genital tract: analysis of 11 cases with comparison to female angiomyofibroblastoma and spindle cell lipoma. Am J Surg Pathol 22:6–16PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  242. Laskin WB, Fetsch JF, Tavassoli FA (2001) Superficial cervicovaginal myofibroblastoma: fourteen cases of a distinctive mesenchymal tumor arising from the specialized subepithelial stroma of the lower female genital tract. Hum Pathol 32:715–725PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. Lawhead RA, Copeland LJ, Edwards CL (1985) Bilateral ovarian hemangiomas associated with diffuse abdominopelvic hemangiomatosis. Obstet Gynecol 65:597–599PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  244. Lawrence B, Perez-Atayde A, Hibbard MK et al (2000) TPM3-ALK and TPM4-ALK oncogenes in inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors. Am J Pathol 157:377–384PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. Leborgne F, Falconi LM (1980) Lymphangiosarcoma of the anterior abdominal wall: a case report. Cancer 46:1228–1230PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  246. Lee KM, Wah HK (2005) Primary Ewing’s sarcoma family of tumors arising from the broad ligament. Int J Gynecol Pathol 24:377–381PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  247. Lee JC, Li CF, Huang HY, Zhu MJ et al (2017) ALK oncoproteins in atypical inflammatory myofibroblastic tumours: novel RRBP1-ALK fusions in epithelioid inflammatory myofibroblastic sarcoma. J Pathol 241:316–323PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  248. LeMaire WJ, Kreiss C, Commodore A et al (2002) Neurilemmoma: an unusual benign tumor of the cervix. Alaska Med 44:63–65PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  249. Levavi H, Sabah G, Kaplan B et al (2006) Granular cell tumor of the vulva: six new cases. Arch Gynecol Obstet 273:246–249PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  250. Lieb SM, Gallousis S, Freedman H (1979) Granular cell myoblastoma of the vulva. Gynecol Oncol 8:12–20PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  251. Lieberman PH, Brennan MF, Kimmel M et al (1989) Alveolar soft-part sarcoma. A clinico-pathologic study of half a century. Cancer 63:1–13PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  252. Lifschitz-Mercer B, Leider-Trejo L, Messer G et al (1998) Primary angiosarcoma of the ovary: a clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical and electron microscopic study. Pathol Res Pract 194:183–187PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. Lin GY, Sun X, Badve S (2002) Pathologic quiz case. Vaginal wall mass in a 47-year-old woman. Vaginal rhabdomyoma. Arch Pathol Lab Med 126:1241–1242PubMedGoogle Scholar
  254. Liu Y, Guo S, Wang L et al (2016) Uterine angiosarcoma: a case report and literature review. Int J Gynecol Pathol 35:264–268PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. Long SR, Whitfeld MJ, Eades C et al (1996) Bacillary angiomatosis of the cervix and vulva in a patient with AIDS. Obstet Gynecol 88:709–711PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. Lovly CM, Gupta A, Lipson D et al (2014) Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors harbor multiple potentially actionable kinase fusions. Cancer Discov 4:889–895PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  257. Maddox JC, Evans HL (1981) Angiosarcoma of skin and soft tissue: a study of forty-four cases. Cancer 48:1907–1921PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  258. Maggiani F, Debiec-Rychter M, Vanbockrijck M et al (2007) Cellular angiofibroma: another mesenchymal tumour with 13q14 involvement, suggesting a link with spindle cell lipoma and (extra)-mammary myofibroblastoma. Histopathology 51:410–412PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  259. Maglione MA, Tricarico OD, Calandria L (2002) Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor of the vulva. A case report. J Reprod Med 47:721–724PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  260. Magro G, Caltabiano R, Kacerovská D et al (2012a) Vulvovaginal myofibroblastoma: expanding the morphological and immunohistochemical spectrum. A clinicopathologic study of 10 cases. Hum Pathol 43:243–253PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. Magro G, Righi A, Casorzo L et al (2012b) Mammary and vaginal myofibroblastomas are genetically related lesions: fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis shows deletion of the 13q14 region. HumPathol 43:1887–1893Google Scholar
  262. Magro G, Righi A, Caltabiano R et al (2014) Vulvovaginal angiomyofibroblastomas: morphologic, immunohistochemical, and fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis for deletion of 13q14 region. Hum Pathol 45:1647–1655PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  263. Maire G, Martin L, Michalak-Provost S et al (2002) Fusion of COL1A1 exon 29 with PDGFB exon 2 in a der(22)t(17;22) in a pediatric giant cell fibroblastoma with a pigmented Bednar tumor component. Evidence for age-related chromosomal pattern in dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans and related tumors. Cancer Genet Cytogenet 134:156–161PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  264. Majmudar B, Castellano PZ, Wilson RW et al (1990) Granular cell tumors of the vulva. J Reprod Med 35:1008–1014PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  265. Majmudar B, Ghanee N, Horowitz IR et al (1998) Uterine arteriovenous malformation necessitating hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy in a young pregnant patient. Arch Pathol Lab Med 122:842–845PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  266. Malinowska I, Kwiatkowski DJ, Weiss S et al (2012) Perivascular epithelioid cell tumors (PEComas) harboring TFE3 gene rearrangements lack the TSC2 alterations characteristic of conventional PEComas: further evidence for a biological distinction. Am J Surg Pathol 36:783–784PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  267. Manetta A, Abt AB, Mamourian AC et al (1989) Pelvic fibromatosis: case report and review of literature. Gynecol Oncol 32:91–94PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  268. Manson CM, Hirsch PJ, Coyne JD (1995) Post-operative spindle cell nodule of the vulva. Histopathology 26:571–574PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  269. Mariani A, Nascimento AG, Webb MJ et al (2000) Surgical management of desmoid tumors of the female pelvis. J Am Coll Surg 191:175–183PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  270. Marino-Enriquez A, Wang WL, Roy A et al (2011) Epithelioid inflammatory myofibroblastic sarcoma: an aggressive intra-abdominal variant of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor with nuclear membrane or perinuclear ALK. Am J Surg Pathol 35:135–144PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  271. Masoura S, Kourtis A, Kalogiannidis I et al (2012) Primary primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the cervix confirmed with molecular analysis in a 23-year-old woman: a case report. Pathol Res Pract 20(8):245–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  272. McAdam JA, Stewart F, Reid R (1998) Vaginal epithelioid angiosarcoma. J Clin Pathol 51:928–930PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  273. McArthur G (2006) Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans: recent clinical progress. Ann Surg Oncol 14:2876–2886CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  274. McCluggage WG, Smith JH (2011) Reactive fibroblastic and myofibroblastic proliferation of the vulva (Cyclist’s nodule): a hitherto poorly described vulvar lesion occurring in cyclists. Am J Surg Pathol 35:110–114PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  275. McCluggage WG, Young RH (2006) Paraganglioma of the ovary: report of three cases of a rare ovarian neoplasm, including two exhibiting inhibin positivity. Am J Surg Pathol 30:600–605PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  276. McCluggage WG, Patterson A, Maxwell P (2000) Aggressive angiomyxoma of pelvic parts exhibits oestrogen and progesterone receptor positivity. J Clin Pathol 53:603–605PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  277. McCluggage WG, Perenyei M, Irwin ST (2002) Recurrent cellular angiofibroma of the vulva. J Clin Pathol 55:477–479PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  278. McCluggage WG, Jamieson T, Dobbs SP et al (2006) Aggressive angiomyxoma of the vulva: dramatic response to gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist therapy. Gynecol Oncol 100:623–625PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  279. McCluggage WG, Sumathi VP, Nucci MR et al (2007) Ewing family of tumours involving the vulva and vagina: report of a series of four cases. J Clin Pathol 60:674–680PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  280. McCluggage WG, Nielsen GP, Young RH (2008) Massive vulvar edema secondary to obesity and immobilization: a potential mimic of aggressive angiomyxoma. J Gynecol Pathol 27:447–452CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  281. McCluggage WG, Connolly L, McBride HA (2010) HMGA2 is a sensitive but not specific immunohistochemical marker of vulvovaginal aggressive angiomyxoma. Am J Surg Pathol 34:1037–1042PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  282. McCluggage WG, Longacre TA, Fisher C (2013) Myogenin expression in vulvovaginal spindle cell lesions: analysis of a series of cases with an emphasis on diagnostic pitfalls. Histopathology 63:545–550PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  283. McDonald AG, Dal Cin P, Ganguly A et al (2011) Liposarcoma arising in uterine lipoleiomyoma: a report of 3 cases and review of the literature. Am J Surg Pathol 35:221–227PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  284. McPeak CJ, Cruz T, Nicastri AD (1967) Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans: an analysis of 86 cases—five with metastasis. Ann Surg 166:803–816PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  285. Medeiros F, Erickson-Johnson MR, Keeney GL et al (2007) Frequency and characterization of HMGA2 and HMGA1 rearrangements in mesenchymal tumors of the lower genital tract. Genes Chromosomes Cancer 46:981–990PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  286. Mendez LE, Joy S, Angioli R et al (1999) Primary uterine angiosarcoma. Gynecol Oncol 75:272–276PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  287. Mentzel T, Beham A, Katenkamp D et al (1998) Fibrosarcomatous (“high-grade”) dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans: clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of a series of 41 cases with emphasis on prognostic significance. Am J Surg Pathol 22:576–587PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  288. Merker VL, Esparza S, Smith MJ et al (2012) Clinical features of schwannomatosis: a retrospective analysis of 87 patients. Oncologist 17:1317–1322PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  289. Miettinen M, Virtanen I, Damjanov I (1985) Coexpression of keratin and vimentin in epithelioid sarcoma. Am J Surg Pathol 9:460–462PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  290. Miettinen M, Fanburg-Smith JC, Virolainen M et al (1999) Epithelioid sarcoma: an immunohistochemical analysis of 112 classical and variant cases and a discussion of the differential diagnosis. Hum Pathol 30:934–942PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  291. Miettinen M, Sobin LH, Lasota J (2009) Gastrointestinal stromal tumors presenting as omental masses—a clinicopathologic analysis of 95 cases. Am J Surg Pathol 33:1267–1275PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  292. Miettinen M, McCue PA, Sarlomo-Rikala M et al (2015) Sox10 – a marker for not only schwannian and melanocytic neoplasms but also myoepithelial cell tumors of soft tissue: a systematic analysis of 5134 tumors. Am J Surg Pathol 39:826–835PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  293. Mirkovic J, Fletcher CDM (2015) Lipoblastoma-like tumor of the vulva. Further characterization in 8 new cases. Am J Surg Pathol 39:1290–1295PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  294. Mitsuhashi A, Nagai Y, Suzuka K et al (2006) Primary synovial sarcoma in fallopian tube: case report and literature review. Int J Gynecol Pathol 26:34–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  295. Modena P, Lualdi E, Facchinetti F et al (2005) SMARCB1/INI1 tumor suppressor gene is frequently inactivated in epithelioid sarcomas. Cancer Res 65:4012–4019PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  296. Mohajeri A, Tayebwa J, Collin A et al (2013) Comprehensive genetic analysis identifies a pathognomonic NAB2/STAT6 fusion gene, nonrandom secondary genomic imbalances, and a characteristic gene expression profile in solitary fibrous tumor. Genes Chromosomes Cancer 52:873–886PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  297. Montgomery EA, Meis JM (1991) Nodular fasciitis. Its morphologic spectrum and immunohistochemical profile. Am J Surg Pathol 15:942–948PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  298. Montgomery EA, Shuster DD, Burkart AL et al (2006) Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors of the urinary tract: a clinicopathologic study of 46 cases, including a malignant example inflammatory fibrosarcoma and a subset associated with high-grade urothelial carcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol 30:1502–1512PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  299. Moreno-Rodríguez M, Pérez-Sicilia M, Delinois R (1999) Lipoma of the endocervix. Histopathology 35:483–484PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  300. Morgan MA, Moutos DM, Pippitt CH Jr et al (1989) Vaginal and bladder angiosarcoma after therapeutic irradiation. South Med J 82:1434–1436PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  301. Morrel B, Mulder AF, Chadha S et al (1993) Angiosarcoma of the uterus following radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 49:193–197PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  302. Moscovic EA, Azar HA (1967) Multiple granular cell tumors (“myoblastomas”). Case report with electron microscopic observations and review of the literature. Cancer 20:2032–2047PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  303. Mosquera JM, Fletcher CD (2009) Expanding the spectrum of malignant progression in solitary fibrous tumors: a study of 8 cases with a discrete anaplastic component – is this dedifferentiated SFT? Am J Surg Pathol 33:1314–1321PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  304. Murray J, Fox H (1991) Rosai-Dorfman disease of the uterine cervix. Int J Gynecol Pathol 10:209–213PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  305. Namizato CS, Muriel-Cueto P, Baez-Perez JM et al (2008) Chondrosarcoma of the uterus: case report and literature review. Arch Gynecol Obstet 278:369–372PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  306. Němejcová K, Dundr P, Krajsová I (2016) Clear cell sarcoma of the vulva. A case report. Cesk Patol 52:215–217PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  307. Nielsen GP, Young RH (1997) Fibromatosis of soft tissue type involving the female genital tract: a report of two cases. Int J Gynecol Pathol 16:383–386PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  308. Nielsen GP, Young RH (2001) Mesenchymal tumors and tumor-like lesions of the female genital tract: a selective review with emphasis on recently described entities. Int J Gynecol Pathol 20:105–127PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  309. Nielsen GP, Oliva E, Young RH et al (1995) Alveolar soft-part sarcoma of the female genital tract: a report of nine cases and review of the literature. Int J Gynecol Pathol 14:283–292PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  310. Nielsen GP, Rosenberg AE, Young RH et al (1996a) Angiomyofibroblastoma of the vulva and vagina. Mod Pathol 9:284–291PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  311. Nielsen GP, Shaw PA, Rosenberg AE et al (1996b) Synovial sarcoma of the vulva: a report of two cases. Mod Pathol 9:970–974PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  312. Nielsen GP, Young RH, Dickersin GR et al (1997a) Angiomyofibroblastoma of the vulva with sarcomatous transformation (“angiomyofibrosarcoma”). Am J Surg Pathol 21:1104–1108PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  313. Nielsen GP, Young RH, Prat J et al (1997b) Primary angiosarcoma of the ovary: a report of seven cases and review of the literature. Int J Gynecol Pathol 16:378–382PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  314. Nirenberg A, Östör AG, Slavin J et al (1995) Primary vulvar sarcomas. Int J Gynecol Pathol 14:55–62PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  315. Nishimura K, Sugao H, Sato K et al (1991) Neurofibroma of the clitoris. A case report. Urol Int 46:109–111PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  316. Nolan NP, Gaffney EF (1990) Alveolar soft part sarcoma of the uterus. Histopathology 16:97–99PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  317. Nonaka D, Chiriboga L, Rubin BP (2008) Sox10: a pan-schwannian and melanocytic marker. Am J Surg Pathol 32:1291–1298PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  318. Nucci MR, Fletcher CD (1998) Liposarcoma (atypical lipomatous tumor) of the vulva: a clinicopathologic study of six cases. Int J Gynecol Pathol 17:17–23PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  319. Nucci MR, Granter SR, Fletcher CD (1997) Cellular angiofibroma: a benign neoplasm distinct from angiomyofibroblastoma and spindle cell lipoma. Am J Surg Pathol 21:636–644PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  320. Nucci MR, Krausz T, Lifschitz-Mercer B et al (1998) Angiosarcoma of the ovary: clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical analysis of four cases with a broad morphologic spectrum. Am J Surg Pathol 22:620–630PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  321. Nucci MR, Weremowicz S, Neskey DM et al (2001) Chromosomal translocation t(8;12) induces aberrant HMGIC expression in aggressive angiomyxoma of the vulva. Genes Chromosomes Cancer 32:172–176PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  322. Nucci MR, Castrillon DH, Bai H et al (2003) Biomarkers in diagnostic obstetric and gynecologic pathology: a review. Adv Anat Pathol 10:55–68PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  323. O’Connell JX, Young RH, Nielsen GP et al (1997) Nodular fasciitis of the vulva: a study of six cases and literature review. Int J Gynecol Pathol 16:117–123PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  324. O’Toole RV, Tuttle SE, Lucas JG et al (1985) Alveolar soft part sarcoma of the vagina: an immunohistochemical and electron microscopic study. Int J Gynecol Pathol 4:258–265PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  325. Oda Y, Tsuneyoshi M (2006) Extrarenal rhabdoid tumors of soft tissue: clinicopathological and molecular genetic review and distinction from other soft-tissue sarcomas with rhabdoid features. Pathol Int 56:287–295PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  326. Oda Y, Hashimoto H, Tsuneyoshi M et al (1993) Survival in synovial sarcoma. A multivariate study of prognostic factors with special emphasis on the comparison between early death and long-term survival. Am J Surg Pathol 17:35–44PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  327. Olawaiye AB, Morgan JA, Goodman A et al (2008) Epithelioid angiosarcoma of the uterus: a review of management. Arch Gynecol Obstet 278:401–404PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  328. Ongkasuwan C, Taylor JE, Tang CK et al (1982) Angiosarcomas of the uterus and ovary: clinicopathologic report. Cancer 49:1469–1475PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  329. Ordi J, Stamatakos MD, Tavassoli FA (1997) Pure pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcomas of the uterus. Int J Gynecol Pathol 16:369–377PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  330. Ordóñez NG (1999) Alveolar soft part sarcoma: a review and update. Adv Anat Pathol 6:125–139PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  331. Ostwal V, Rekhi B, Noronha V et al (2012) Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of ovary in a young lady, confirmed with molecular and cytogenetic results – a rare case report with a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Pathol Oncol Res 18:1101–1106PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  332. Outwater EK, Marchetto BE, Wagner BJ et al (1999) Aggressive angiomyxoma: findings on CT and MR imaging. AJR 172:435–438PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  333. Paik HH, Komorowski R (1976) Hemangiosarcoma of the abdominal wall following irradiation therapy of endometrial carcinoma. Am J Clin Pathol 66:810–814PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  334. Park JY, Lee S, Kang HJ et al (2007) Primary Ewing’s sarcoma-primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the uterus: a case report and literature review. Gynecol Oncol 106:427–432PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  335. Parra-Herran C, Quick CM, Howitt BE et al (2015) Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the uterus: clinical and pathologic review of 10 cases including a subset with aggressive clinical course. Am J Surg Pathol 39:157–168PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  336. Pauwels P, Ambros P, Hattinger C et al (2000) Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumour of the cervix. Virchows Arch 436:68–73PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  337. Pelosi G, Luzzatto F, Landoni F et al (2007) Poorly differentiated synovial sarcoma of the vagina: first reported case with immunohistochemical, molecular and ultrastructural data. Histopathology 50:808–810PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  338. Penel N, Le Cesne A, Bui BN et al (2011) Imatinib for progressive and recurrent aggressive fibromatosis (desmoid tumors): an FNCLCC/French Sarcoma Group phase II trial with a long-term follow-up. Ann Oncol 22:452–457PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  339. Perrone T, Swanson PE, Twiggs L et al (1989) Malignant rhabdoid tumor of the vulva: is distinction from epithelioid sarcoma possible? Am J Surg Pathol 13:848–858PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  340. Petković M, Zamolo G, Muhvić D et al (2002) The first report of extraosseous Ewing’s sarcoma in the rectovaginal septum. Tumori 88:345–346PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  341. Pichler Sekulic S, Sekulic M (2016) Nodular fasciitis of the vulva: a challenging histopathologic diagnosis supported by the detection of USP6 gene rearrangement. APMIS 124:534–537PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  342. Pillay K, Essa AS, Chetty R (2001) Borderline serous cystadenocarcinoma with coexistent angiosarcoma: an unusual form of ovarian carcinosarcoma. Int J Surg Pathol 9:317–321PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  343. Piver MS, Tsukada Y, Barlow J (1972) Epithelioid sarcoma of the vulva. Obstet Gynecol 40:839–842PubMedGoogle Scholar
  344. Platt JS, Rogers SJ, Flynn EA et al (1999) Primary angiosarcoma of the ovary: a case report and review of the literature. Gynecol Oncol 73:443–446PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  345. Prempree T, Tang CK, Hatef A et al (1983) Angiosarcoma of the vagina: a clinicopathologic report. A reappraisal of the radiation treatment of angiosarcomas of the female genital tract. Cancer 51:618–622PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  346. Pressoir R, Chung EB (1980) Granular cell tumor in black patients. J Natl Med Assoc 72:1171–1175PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  347. Prieto-Granada CN, Wiesner T, Messina JL et al (2016) Loss of H3K27me3 expression is a highly sensitive marker for sporadic and radiation-induced MPNST. Am J Surg Pathol 40:479–489PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  348. Proppe KH, Scully RE, Rosai J (1984) Postoperative spindle cell nodules of genitourinary tract resembling sarcomas. Am J Surg Pathol 8:101–108PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  349. Prus D, Rosenberg AE, Blumenfeld A et al (1997) Infantile hemangioendothelioma of the ovary: a monodermal teratoma or a neoplasm of ovarian somatic cells? Am J Surg Pathol 21:1231–1235PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  350. Rabban JT, Zaloudek CJ, Shekitka KM et al (2005) Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the uterus: a clinicopathologic study of 6 cases emphasizing distinction from aggressive mesenchymal tumors. Am J Surg Pathol 29:1348–1355PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  351. Radig K, Buhtz P, Roessner A (1998) Alveolar soft part sarcoma of the uterine corpus. Report of two cases and review of the literature. Pathol Res Pract 194:59–63PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  352. Rajah SB, Moodley J, Pudifin DJ et al (1990) Kaposi’s sarcoma associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome presenting as a vulvar papilloma. A case report. S Afr Med J 77:585–586PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  353. Ramos PC, Kapp DS, Longacre TA et al (2000) Malignant granular cell tumor of the vulva in a 17-year-old: case report and literature review. Int J Gynecol Cancer 10:429–434PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  354. Rao Q, Cheng L, Xia QY et al (2013) Cathepsin K expression in a wide spectrum of perivascular epithelioid cell neoplasms (PEComas): a clinicopathological study emphasizing extrarenal PEComas. Histopathology 62:642–650PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  355. Reitamo JJ, Häyry P, Nykyri E et al (1982) The desmoid tumor. I. Incidence, sex-, age-, and anatomic distribution in the Finnish population. Am J Clin Pathol 77:665–673PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  356. Rezvani FF (1997) Vaginal cavernous hemangioma in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 89:824–825PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  357. Riccardi VM (1981) Von Recklinghausen neurofibromatosis. N Engl J Med 305:1617–1627PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  358. Rink RC, Mitchell ME (1983) Genitourinary neurofibromatosis in childhood. J Urol 130:1176–1179PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  359. Robertson AJ, McIntosh W, Lamont P et al (1981) Malignant granular cell tumor (myoblastoma) of the vulva: report of a case and review of the literature. Histopathology 5:69–79PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  360. Robinson DR, Wu YM, Kalyana-Sundaram S et al (2013) Identification of recurrent NAB2-STAT6 gene fusions in solitary fibrous tumor by integrative sequencing. Nat Genet 45:180–185PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  361. Roma AA, Yang B, Senior ME et al (2005) TFE3 immunoreactivity in alveolar soft part sarcoma of the uterine cervix: case report. Int J Gynecol Pathol 24:131–135PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  362. Roses DF, Valensi Q, LaTrenta G et al (1986) Surgical treatment of dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. Surg Gynecol Obstet 162:449–452PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  363. Saha SC, Dogra M, Malhotra S (1993) Pelvic plexiform neurofibroma—an obstetric dilemma. Int J Gynecol Obstet 43:61–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  364. Sahin AA, Silva EG, Ordonez NG (1989) Alveolar soft part sarcoma of the uterine cervix. Mod Pathol 2:676–680PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  365. Santos LD, Currie BG, Killingsworth MC (2001) Case report: plexiform schwannoma of the vulva. Pathology 33:526–531PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  366. Savargaonkar PR, Wells S, Graham I et al (1994) Ovarian haemangiomas and stromal luteinization. Histopathology 25:185–188PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  367. Scanlon R, Kelehan P, Flannelly G et al (2003) Ischemic fasciitis: an unusual vulvovaginal spindle cell lesion. Int J Gynecol Pathol 23:65–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  368. Schaefer IM, Fletcher CD, Hornick JL et al (2016) Loss of H3K27 trimethylation distinguishes malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors from histologic mimics. Mod Pathol 29:4–13PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  369. Schammel DP, Tavassoli FA (1998) Uterine angiosarcoma: a morphologic and immunohistochemical study of four cases. Am J Surg Pathol 22:246–250PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  370. Scherr GR, d’Ablaing G 3rd, Ouzounian JG (1994) Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the vulva. Gynecol Oncol 54:254–258PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  371. Schoolmeester JK, Fritchie KJ (2015) Genital soft tissue tumors. J Cutan Pathol 42:441–451PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  372. Schoolmeester JK, Lastra RR (2015) Granular cell tumors overexpress TFE3 without corollary gene rearrangement. Hum Pathol 46:1242–1243PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  373. Schoolmeester JK, Sukov WR (2017) ALK-rearranged inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the placenta, with observations on site of origin. Int J Gynecol Pathol 36:228–229PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  374. Schoolmeester JK, Howitt BE, Hirsch MS et al (2014) Perivascular epithelioid cell neoplasm (PEComa) of the gynecologic tract: clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical characterization of 16 cases. Am J Surg Pathol 38:176–188PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  375. Schoolmeester JK, Dao LN, Sukov WR (2015) TFE3 translocation-associated perivascular epithelioid cell neoplasm (PEComa) of the gynecologic tract: morphology, immunophenotype, differential diagnosis. Am J Surg Pathol 39:394–404PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  376. Schoolmeester JK, Carlson J, Keeney GL et al (2017) Alveolar soft part sarcoma of the female genital tract: a morphologic, Immunohistochemical, and molecular cytogenetic study of 10 cases with emphasis on its distinction from morphologic mimics. Am J Surg Pathol 41:622–632PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  377. Schreiber MM (1963) Vulvar von Recklinghausen’s disease. Arch Dermatol 88:320–321PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  378. Schwartz BM, Kuo DY, Goldberg GL (1999) Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans of the vulva: a rare tumor presenting during pregnancy in a teenager. J Lower Genital Tract Dis 3:139–142Google Scholar
  379. Schwartz PE, Hui P, McCarthy SJ (2014) Hormonal therapy for aggressive angiomyxoma: a case report and proposed management algorithm. J Low Genit Tract Dis 18:E55–E61PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  380. Sheth A, Terzic M, Arsenovic N (2011) Vulvar hibernoma. Indian J Pathol Microbiol 54:817–818PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  381. Shimizu A, O’Brien KP, Sjöblom T et al (1999) The dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans-associated collagen type Ialpha1/platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) B-chain fusion gene generates a transforming protein that is processed to functional PDGF-BB. Cancer Res 59:3719–3723PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  382. Shin C, Low I, Ng D et al (2016) USP6 gene rearrangement in nodular fasciitis and histological mimics. Histopathology 69:784–791PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  383. Shintaku M, Fukushima A (2006) Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the uterus with prominent myxoid change. Pathol Int 56:625–628PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  384. Siassi RM, Papadopoulos T, Matzel KE (1999) Metastasizing aggressive angiomyxoma. N Engl J Med 341:1772PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  385. Simon NL, Mazur MT, Shingleton HM (1985) Pelvic fibromatosis: an unusual gynecologic tumor. Obstet Gynecol 65:767–769PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  386. Simpson KW, Albores-Saavedra J (2007) HMB-45 reactivity in conventional uterine leiomyosarcomas. Am J Surg Pathol 31:95–98PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  387. Sims SM, Stinson K, McLean FW et al (2012) Angiomyofibroblastoma of the vulva: a case report of a pedunculated variant and review of the literature. J Low Genit Tract Dis 16:149–154PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  388. Sinkre P, Albores-Saavedra J, Miller DS et al (2000) Endometrial endometrioid carcinomas associated with Ewing sarcoma/peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor. Int J Gynecol Pathol 19:127–132PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  389. Sirvent N, Maire G, Pedeutour F (2003) Genetics of dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans family of tumors: from ring chromosome to tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment. Genes Chromosomes Cancer 37:1–19PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  390. Skálová A, Michal M, Hušek K et al (1993) Aggressive angiomyxoma of the pelvioperineal region. Immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study of seven cases. Am J Dermatopathol 15:446–451PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  391. Smith CJ, Ferrier AJ, Russell P et al (2005) Primary synovial sarcoma of the ovary: first reported case. Pathology 37:385–387PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  392. Smith HG, Thway K, Messiou C et al (2016) Selective marginal resections in the management of aggressive angiomyxomas. J Surg Oncol 114:828–832PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  393. Snijders-Keilholz A, Ewing P, Seynaeve C et al (2005) Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the cervix uteri: a case report – changing concepts in therapy. Gynecol Oncol 98:516–519PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  394. Snow SN, Gordon EM, Larson PO et al (2004) Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans: a report on 29 patients treated by Mohs micrographic surgery with long-term follow-up and review of the literature. Cancer 101:28–38PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  395. Sobottka Ventura AC, Remonda L, Mojon DS (2001) Intermittent visual loss and exophthalmos due to the blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome. Am J Ophthalmol 132:132–135PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  396. Sonobe H, Ro JY, Ramos M et al (1994) Glomus tumor of the female external genitalia: a report of two cases. Int J Gynecol Pathol 13:359–364PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  397. Sordillo PP, Helson L, Hajdu SI et al (1981) Malignant schwannoma – clinical characteristics, survival, and response to therapy. Cancer 47:2503–2509PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  398. Stacchiotti S, Negri T, Zaffaroni N et al (2011) Sunitinib in advanced alveolar soft part sarcoma: evidence of a direct antitumor effect. Ann Oncol 22:1682–1690PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  399. Starbuck KD, Drake RD, Budd GT et al (2016) Treatment of advanced malignant uterine perivascular epithelioid cell tumor with mTOR inhibitors: single-institution experience and review of the literature. Anticancer Res 36:6161–6164PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  400. Steeper TA, Rosai J (1983) Aggressive angiomyxoma of the female pelvis and perineum. Report of nine cases of a distinctive type of gynecologic soft-tissue neoplasm. Am J Surg Pathol 7:463–475PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  401. Stratakis CA, Kirschner LS, Carney JA (2001) Clinical and molecular features of the Carney complex: diagnostic criteria and recommendations for patient evaluation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86:4041–4046PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  402. Strayer SA, Yum MN, Sutton GP (1992) Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma of the clitoris: a case report with immunohistochemical and ultrastructural findings. Int J Gynecol Pathol 11:234–239PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  403. Strickland KC, Nucci MR, Esselen KM et al (2016) Solitary fibrous tumor of the uterus presenting with lung metastases: a case report. Int J Gynecol Pathol 35:25–29PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  404. Strong EW, McDivitt RW, Brasfield RD (1970) Granular cell myoblastoma. Cancer 25:415–422PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  405. Suarez Vilela D, Gimenez Pizarro A, Rio Suarez M (1990) Vaginal rhabdomyoma and adenosis. Histopathology 16:393–394PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  406. Suleiman M, Duc C, Ritz S et al (2006) Pelvic excision of large aggressive angiomyxoma in a woman: irradiation for recurrent disease. Int J Gynecol Cancer 16:356–360PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  407. Sumathi VP, Fisher C, Williams A et al (2011) Synovial sarcoma of the vulva and vagina: a clinicopathologic and molecular genetic study of 4 cases. Int J Gynecol Pathol 30:84–91PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  408. Sutphen R, Galán-Goméz E, Kousseff BG (1995) Clitoromegaly in neurofibromatosis. Am J Med Genet 55:325–330PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  409. Taïeb S, Cabaret V, Bonodeau F et al (1998) MRI of primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the uterus. J Comput Assist Tomogr 22:896–898PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  410. Takeuchi K, Murata K, Funaki K et al (2000) Liposarcoma of the uterine cervix: case report. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol 21:290–291PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  411. Talerman A, Auerbach WM, van Meurs AJ (1981) Primary chondrosarcoma of the ovary. Histopathology 5:319–324PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  412. Tallini G, Price FV, Carcangiu ML (1993) Epithelioid angiosarcoma arising in uterine leiomyomas. Am J Clin Pathol 100:514–518PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  413. Tan GW, Lim-Tan SK, Salmon YM (1989) Epithelioid sarcoma of the vulva. Singap Med J 30:308–310Google Scholar
  414. Terada KY, Schmidt RW, Roberts JA (1988) Malignant schwannoma of the vulva. A case report. J Reprod Med 33:969–972PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  415. Thanner F, Suetterlin M, Kenn W et al (2001) Pregnancy-associated diffuse cavernous hemangioma of the uterus. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 80:1150–1151PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  416. Tiltman AJ, Duffield MS (1996) Postpartum microneuromas of the uterine cervix. Histopathology 28:153–156PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  417. Tjalma WA, Hauben EI, Deprez SM et al (1999) Epithelioid sarcoma of the vulva. Gynecol Oncol 73:160–164PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  418. Tohya T, Katabuchi H, Fukuma K et al (1991) Angiosarcoma of the vagina. A light and electron microscopy study. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 70:169–172PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  419. Tsao AS, Roth LM, Sandler A et al (2001) Cervical primitive neuroectodermal tumor. Gynecol Oncol 83:138–142PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  420. Tsuji T, Yoshinaga M, Inomoto Y et al (2007) Aggressive angiomyxoma of the vulva with a sole t(5;8)(p15;q22) chromosome change. Int J Gynecol Pathol 26:494–496PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  421. Tsukasaki N, Mori T, Yasukawa S et al (2016) Primary osteosarcoma of the uterine corpus: a case report. J Obstet Gynaecol Res 42:1604–1608PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  422. Tunitsky-Bitton E, Uy-Kroh MJ, Michener C et al (2015) Primary Ewing sarcoma presenting as a vulvar mass in an adolescent: case report and review of literature. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol 28:e179–e183PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  423. Ueda M, Okamoto Y, Ueki M (1996) A pelvic retroperitoneal schwannoma arising in the right paracolpium. Gynecol Oncol 60:480–483PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  424. Uzunlar AK, Yilmaz F, Kilinç N et al (2002) Cavernous hemangioma of the uterus (a case report). Eur J Gynaecol Oncol 23:72–73PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  425. Vallat-Decouvelaere A-V, Dry SM, Fletcher CD (1998) Atypical and malignant solitary fibrous tumors in extrathoracic locations: evidence of their comparability to intra-thoracic tumors. Am J Surg Pathol 22:1501–1511PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  426. van de Rijn M, Barr FG, Xiong QB et al (1999) Poorly differentiated synovial sarcoma: an analysis of clinical, pathologic, and molecular genetic features. Am J Surg Pathol 23:106–112PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  427. Van Leeuwen J, van der Putten HW, Demeyere TB et al (2011) Paraganglioma of the uterus: a case report and review of literature. Gynecol Oncol 121:418–419PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  428. Vang R, Kempson RL (2002) Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (‘PEComa’) of the uterus: a subset of HMB-45-positive epithelioid mesenchymal neoplasms with an uncertain relationship to pure smooth muscle tumors. Am J Surg Pathol 26:1–13PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  429. Vang R, Connelly JH, Hammill HA et al (2000a) Vulvar hypertrophy with lymphedema. A mimicker of aggressive angiomyxoma. Arch Pathol Lab Med 124:1697–1699PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  430. Vang R, Taubenberger JK, Mannion CM et al (2000b) Primary vulvar and vaginal extraosseous Ewing’s sarcoma/peripheral neuroectodermal tumor: diagnostic confirmation with CD99 immunostaining and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Int J Gynecol Pathol 19:103–109PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  431. Vanni R, Faa G, Dettori T et al (2000) A case of dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans of the vulva with a COL1A1/PDGFB fusion identical to a case of giant cell fibroblastoma. Virchows Arch 437:95–100PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  432. Vargas SO, Kozakewich HP, Boyd TK et al (2005) Childhood asymmetric labium majus enlargement: mimicking a neoplasm. Am J Surg Pathol 29:1007–1016PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  433. Varghese L, Arnesen M, Boente M (2006) Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the uterus: a case report and review of literature. Int J Gynecol Pathol 25:373–377PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  434. Vyas V, Rammah AM, Ashebu SD et al (2006) A case report of primary osteosarcoma of the ovary. Int J Gynecol Cancer 16(Suppl 1):349–352PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  435. Wakami K, Tateyama H, Kawashima H et al (2005) Solitary fibrous tumor of the uterus producing high-molecular-weight insulin-like growth factor II and associated with hypoglycemia. Int J Gynecol Pathol 24:79–84PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  436. Wanebo JE, Malik JM, VandenBerg SR et al (1993) Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors: a clinicopathologic study of 28 cases. Cancer 71:1247–1253PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  437. Webb MJ, Symmonds RE, Weiland LH (1974) Malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the vagina. Am J Obstet Gynecol 119:190–192PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  438. Wei EX, Albores-Saavedra J, Fowler MR (2005) Plexiform neurofibroma of the uterine cervix: a case report and review of the literature. Arch Pathol Lab Med 129:783–786PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  439. Weissman A, Talmon R, Jakobi P (1993) Cavernous hemangioma of the uterus in a pregnant woman. Obstet Gynecol 81:825–827PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  440. White J, Chan YF (1994) Aggressive angiomyxoma of the vulva in an 11-year-old girl. Pediatr Pathol 14:27–37PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  441. White W, Shiu MH, Rosenblum MK et al (1990) Cellular schwannoma. A clinicopathologic study of 57 patients and 58 tumors. Cancer 66:1266–1275PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  442. White BE, Kaplan A, Lopez-Terrada DH et al (2008) Monophasic synovial sarcoma arising in the vulva: a case report and review of the literature. Arch Pathol Lab Med 132:698–702PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  443. Wilcken N, Tattersall MH (1991) Endocrine therapy for desmoid tumors. Cancer 68:1384–1388PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  444. Wingen CB, Pauwels PA, Debiec-Rychter M et al (2005) Uterine gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST). Gynecol Oncol 97:970–972PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  445. Witkin GB, Askin FB, Geratz JD et al (1987) Angiosarcoma of the uterus: a light microscopic, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural study. Int J Gynecol Pathol 6:176–184PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  446. Wolber RA, Talerman A, Wilkinson EJ et al (1991) Vulvar granular cell tumors with pseudocarcinomatous hyperplasia: a comparative analysis with well-differentiated squamous carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Pathol 10:59–66PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  447. Wong WW, Hirose T, Scheithauer BW et al (1998) Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor: analysis of treatment outcome. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 42:351–360PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  448. Woodruff JM, Marshall ML, Godwin TA et al (1983) Plexiform (multinodular) schwannoma. A tumor simulating the plexiform neurofibroma. Am J Surg Pathol 7:691–697PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  449. Wrotnowski U, Cooper PH, Shmookler BM (1988) Fibrosarcomatous change in dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. Am J Surg Pathol 12:287–293PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  450. Xiao P, Peng J-J, Li Y et al (2013) Unusual calcifying fibrous tumor in the fallopian tube: review and discussion of the differential diagnosis. Int J Gynecol Pathol 33:40–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  451. Yamashita Y, Yamada T, Ueki K et al (1996) A case of vulvar schwannoma. J Obstet Gynaecol Res 22:31–34PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  452. Yamawaki T, Hirai Y, Takeshima N et al (1996) Ovarian hemangioma associated with concomitant stromal luteinization and ascites. Gynecol Oncol 61:438–441PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  453. Yang W, Li G, Wei-qiang Z (2012) Multifocal PEComa (PEComatosis) of the female genital tract and pelvis: a case report and review of the literature. Diagn Pathol 7:23PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  454. Yoshida A, Tsuta K, Ohno M et al (2014) STAT6 immunohistochemistry is helpful in the diagnosis of solitary fibrous tumors. Am J Surg Pathol 38:552–559PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  455. Yoshida A, Yoshida H, Yoshida M et al (2015) Myoepithelioma-like tumors of the vulvar region. A distinctive group of SMARCB1-deficient neoplasms. Am J Surg Pathol 39:1102–1113PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  456. Yousem HL, Dorfman HD (1962) Myometrial involvement in von Recklinghausen’s disease: report of a case. Obstet Gynecol 20:781–784PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  457. Zreik RT, Fritchie KJ (2016) Morphologic spectrum of desmoid-type fibromatosis. Am J Clin Pathol 145:332–340PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  458. Zubor P, Kajo K, Szunyogh N et al (2007) A solitary fibrous tumor in the broad ligament of the uterus. Pathol Res Pract 203:555–560PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  459. Zudaire T, Guarch R, Valcayo A et al (2017) Primary Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the vulva: case report and review of the literature. Int J Gynecol Pathol 36:111–114PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media LLC 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Soft Tissue PathologyThe Joint Pathology CenterSilver SpringUSA
  2. 2.Department of PathologyYale Surgical Pathology, Yale School of MedicineNew HavenUSA

Personalised recommendations