Encyclopedia of Planetary Landforms

2015 Edition
| Editors: Henrik Hargitai, Ákos Kereszturi

“Cryokarst”

Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-3134-3_91

Related Terms

Cryokarst desiccation pit; Dissected terrain; Pitted terrain

Definition

“Cryokarst” structures (sensu stricto) are erosional features (pits and depressions) interpreted as formed by sublimation-driven removal of subsurface ice and surface collapse afterward (Kreslavsky et al. 2008).

Note

In terrestrial studies, the terms thermokarst and cryokarst are sometimes used as synonyms. According to UNESCO (1972), the term “cryokarst” is more common in Europe, while the term “thermokarst” is used in America. This note is commonly copied in subsequent glossaries (e.g., Field 2002). Harris et al. (1988) do not recommend the use of cryokarst. Several authors (e.g., French 2007) define thermokarst as a landform that evolves in response to the loss of thermal equilibrium by means of thaw or sublimation in ice-rich permafrost and thus include cryokarst in  thermokarst landforms. Some authors (e.g., Tyc 2007) specifically use “cryokarst” as a synonym of glacial karst “for the whole...

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References

  1. Ahlmann HE (1952) Preliminary report for the general assembly of the 17th international congress. International Geographical Union, Washington, p 24Google Scholar
  2. Field MS (2002) A lexicon of cave and karst terminology with special reference to environmental karst hydrology. In: National center for environmental assessment–Washington Office. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  3. French HM (2007) Thermokarst, in The Periglacial Environment, Third Edition, John Wiley & Sons Ltd., West Sussex, EnglandCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Harris SA, French HM, Heginbottom JA, Johnston GH, Ladanyi B et al (1988) Glossary of permafrost and related ground-ice terms. Permafrost Subcommittee, Associate Committee on Geotechnical Research, National Research Council of Canada, Technical Memorandum No. 142Google Scholar
  5. Head JW, Mustard JF, Kreslavsky MA, Milliken RE, Marchant DR, Forget F, Schon SC, Levy JS (2002) Mars in the current glacial-interglacial cycle: exploring an anomalous period in Mars climate history. 42nd lunar and planetary science conference, The Woodlands, Texas, abstract 1315Google Scholar
  6. Johnsson A, Delbratt E, Mustard JF, Milliken RE, Reiss D, Hiesinger H, Olvmo M (2008) Small scale polygonal patterns along the southern water ice margin on Mars. 39th lunar and planetary science, League City, Texas, abstract 1753Google Scholar
  7. Kreslavsky MA, Head JW, Marchant DR (2008) Periods of active per-mafrost layer formation during the geological history of Mars: implications for circum-polar and mid-latitude surface processes. Planet Space Sci 56:289–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Mangold N (2011) Water ice sublimation related landforms on Mars. In: Balme MR, Bargery AS, Gallagher CJ, Gupta S (eds) Martian geomorphology, Geological society special publication 356. Geological Society, London, p 140Google Scholar
  9. Milliken RE, Mustard JF, Goldsby DL (2003) Viscous flow features on the surface of Mars: observations from high-resolution Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images. J Geophys Res 108:5057. doi:10.1029/2002JE002005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Péwé TL (1954) Effect of permafrost on cultivated fields, Fairbanks area, Alaska. Geol Surv Bull 989-F:315–351Google Scholar
  11. Tyc A (2007) Foreword. “Karst and Cryokarst” The 8th GLACKIPR symposium, Silesia, Poland. http://geomorf.wnoz.us.edu.pl/KARST/Karst&Cryokarst_Foreword.pdf
  12. UNESCO (1972) Glossary and multilingual equivalents of 227 karst terms (First preliminary edition), Paris. http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0000/000019/001976Eb.pdf

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Konkoly Thege Miklos Astronomical InstituteResearch Centre for Astronomy and Earth SciencesBudapestHungary
  2. 2.NASA Ames Research Center/NPPMoffett FieldUSA