Encyclopedia of Planetary Landforms

2015 Edition
| Editors: Henrik Hargitai, Ákos Kereszturi

Crevasse Splay

Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-3134-3_82

Definition

Sheetflood deposits formed by subsidiary river channels (crevasse channels) as a result of point failures of a levee (Kargel et al. 1994).

Synonyms

Description

Fan- or lobe-shaped mounds of sediment. Their distal margins can either thin gradually or end abruptly with a steep slope (Bridge and Demicco 2012, p. 432).

Subtypes

Deltaic crevasse splay (subdelta), formed along distributary channels (e.g., Roberts 1986, p. 438).

Formation

Crevasse splays form following flooding events (Pondrelli et al. 2008), “where the levee of a river has been breached and flow is fed directly onto the floodplain through a new distributary channel (crevasse channel)” (North and Davidson 2012), infilling the interdistributary areas (floodplain) with coarser sediments, initially unconfined, later concentrating into one or more channels. “The splay will initially be symmetrical about a perpendicular to the main channel, but, as it enlarges, its morphology and orientation adjust to...

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References

  1. Bridge JS, Demicco R (2012) Rivers, alluvial plains and fans. Earth surface processes, landforms and sediment deposits. Cambridge University Press, New York, In, pp 365–461Google Scholar
  2. Kargel JS, Kirk RL, Fegly B Jr, Treiman AH (1994) Carbonate-sulfate volcanism on Venus? Icarus 112:219–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. North CP, Davidson SK (2012) Unconfined alluvial flow processes: recognition and interpretation of their deposits, and the significance for palaeogeographic reconstruction. Earth Sci Rev 111:199–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Pondrelli M, Pio Rossi A, Marinangeli L, Hauber E, Gwinner K, Baliva A, Di Lorenzo S (2008) Evolution and depositional environments of the Eberswalde fan delta, Mars. Icarus 197:429–451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Roberts HH (1986) Selected depositional environments of the Mississippi River deltaic plain. In: Neathery TL (ed) Southeastern section of the Geological Society of America, Centenniel Field Guide 6, Geological Society of America, Boulder, CO. pp 435–446Google Scholar
  6. Stouthamer E (2001) Sedimentary products of avulsions in the Holocene Rhine–Meuse Delta, The Netherlands. Sediment Geol 145(1–2):73–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.NASA Ames Research Center/NPPMoffett FieldUSA