Encyclopedia of Planetary Landforms

2015 Edition
| Editors: Henrik Hargitai, Ákos Kereszturi

Ripple

Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-3134-3_319

Definition

Any topographic deviation on the bedding surface of a sedimentary deposit that resembles a ripple of water.

Category

A type of  bedform.

Subtypes

Subtypes of ripples include:
  1. (1)

     Aeolian ripples (e.g., impact ripples, megaripples, fluid-drag ripples).

     
  2. (2)

    Adhesion ripples (anti-ripplets, aeolian microridges, climbing ripples) (Fig. 1a): These ripples are formed by dry sand blowing across wet surface where grains are trapped by surface tension. Adhesion ripples are <1 cm wavelength subparallel ripples oriented perpendicular to wind direction exhibiting ripple crests slightly convex in upwind direction and slopes steeper in upwind than downwind direction. “With unidirectional winds, individual adhesion ripples climb upwind over each other, producing a set of pseudo-cross-lamination with foresets dipping downwind” (Kocurek and Fielder 1982). On Earth they are found on marine beaches, desert interdune flats, and playas (Pye and Tsoar 1990).

     
  3. (3)
    Subaqueous ripples: They are...
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References

  1. Allen JRL (1972) A theoretical and experimental study of climbing ripple cross lamination with a field application to the Uppsala esker. Geogr Ann 53A:157–181Google Scholar
  2. Baas JH (1999) An empirical model for the development and equilibrium morphology of current ripples in fine sand. Sedimentology 46:185–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Charru F, Andreotti B, Clauding P (2013) Sand ripples and dunes. Annu Rev Fluid Mech 45:469–493. doi:10.1146/annurev-fluid-011212-140806CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Claudin P, Andreotti B (2006) A scaling law for aeolian dunes on mars, venus, earth, and for subaqueous ripples. Earth Planet Sci Lett 252(1–2):30–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Evans OF (1941) The classification of wave-formed ripple marks. J Sediment Petrol 11(1):37–41Google Scholar
  6. Kocurek G, Fielder G (1982) Adhesion structures. J Sediment Petrol 52(4):1229–1241Google Scholar
  7. Lamb MP, Grotzinger JP, Southard JB, Tosca NJ (2012) Were aqueous ripples on mars formed by flowing brines? In: Sedimentary geology of mars. Society for Sedimentary Geology Special Publication no. 102, pp 139–150Google Scholar
  8. Langlois V, Valance A (2007) Initiation and evolution of current ripples on a flat sand bed under turbulent water flow. Eur Phys JE 22:201–208. doi:10.1140/epje/e2007-00023-0Google Scholar
  9. Pye K, Tsoar H (1990) Aeolian sand and sand dunes. Unwin Hyman, London, p 396CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.NASA Ames Research Center/NPPMoffett FieldUSA
  2. 2.Konkoly Thege Miklos Astronomical InstituteResearch Centre for Astronomy and Earth SciencesBudapestHungary