Advertisement

European Multinational Satellite Programs

  • Alexander Kolovos
  • Kostas Pilaftsis
Reference work entry

Abstract

Multilateral cooperation is an established approach for European countries to develop and acquire high-quality space systems, based on collective needs, pooling of resources, and cost sharing. This applies equally to the defense and security domain, where comprehensive earth observation competences are operationally required. In this context, the cooperation under MUSIS will be detailed as a characteristic paradigm. The acronym stands for “Multinational Space-based Imagery System” and represents the initiative of 7 + 1 defense ministers of European Union members (Belgium, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Poland, Spain, and Sweden in the joining) to produce surveillance, reconnaissance, and observation capabilities, as required in the time horizon of 2015–2030. MUSIS started out ambitiously as an idea for a European Earth Observation System for defense and security, with multinational-produced space components and a commonly defined and developed user ground segment. However, from conception to deployment, MUSIS has been proven a complicated endeavor and time-consuming process so far. MUSIS has received skepticism for not being able to evolve into a tangible space program yet, with finalized and validated framework for its operational deliverables, participation requirements, and resource allocation. The reasons are nested in the requirements for multinational coordination among its participants, the formalities of national and collective decision making, and the individual political, operational, and industrial imperatives at national level. MUSIS remains an open intergovernmental project with a certain political guidance, but the lack of legally binding programmatic provisions so far plus the ongoing financial crisis leaves room for ambiguity in participants’ intentions and further commitments regarding MUSIS. This chapter addresses the background upon which MUSIS is based, the satellite program description and its development, the space components architecture, and the MUSIS foreseen operation and reaches some conclusions regarding the program and its future prospects.

Keywords

Imaging Capability Space Component Security Purpose Federate Activity Earth Observation System 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. ΒΕ, DE, EL, ES, FR & IT MoD (2006). Technical arrangement 1 To the ERG-arrangement No1, to the Europa MoU, related to the preparatory studies for the definition and the realisation of a multinational space-based imaging system (MUSIS) for surveillance, reconnaissance and observation. http://nomoi.info/%CE%A6%CE%95%CE%9A-%CE%91-271-2007-%CF%83%CE%B5%CE%BB-37.html. Accessed 16 Aug 2012
  2. DGA FR MoD (2010a) Lancement de la réalisation des satellites CSO du programme Musis. http://www.defense.gouv.fr/dga/actualite/lancement-de-la-realisation-des-satellites-cso-du-programme-musis/%28language%29/fre-FR#SearchText=MUSIS#xtcr=2. Accessed 20 Aug 2012
  3. DGA FR MoD (2010b) La France reçoit ses 1res images de satellites radar allemands et italiens. http://www.defense.gouv.fr/dga/actualite/la-france-recoit-ses-1res-images-de-satellites-radar-allemands-et-italiens/%28language%29/fre-FR#SearchText=MUSIS#xtcr=3. Accessed 20 Aug 2012
  4. EDA (2009) Capabilities priorities. Core drivers & environments. Space. Earth Observation. MUSIS. http://eda.europa.eu/Capabilitiespriorities/coredrivers/Space/Earthobservation/MUSIS Accessed 16 Aug 2012
  5. ESA (2012) Telecommunications and integrated applications directorate. http://www.esa.int/esaTE/SEM5GGKTYRF_index_0.html. Accessed 22 Aug 2012
  6. France - Italy. (2014, March 16). Turin Accord 2001. Retrieved from Ambassade de France à Rome: http://www.ambafrance-it.org/IMG/pdf/Accord_observation_de_la_Terre-2.pdf
  7. Gmes.info (2012). GMES projects. http://www.gmes.info/pages-principales/projects. Accessed 22 Aug 2012
  8. Kolovos A (2009) The European space policy – its impact and challenges for the European security and defence policy. ESPI Perspectives 27:6–8Google Scholar
  9. Lange S (2007) SAR-Lupe satellites launched. Strategie & Technik – International ed. http://www.swp-berlin.org/fileadmin/contents/products/fachpublikationen/SAR_Lupe_ks.pdf. Accessed 20 Aug 2012
  10. OCCAR (2011) MUSIS – Federating activities. http://www.occar-ea.org/174. Accessed 16 Aug 2012
  11. OCCAR (2012) MUSIS FA Phase B1 completed. http://www.occar-ea.org/242. Accessed 29 Aug 2012
  12. Pasco X (2009) A European approach to space security. American Academy of Arts and Sciences. http://carnegie.org/fileadmin/Media/Publications/PDF/spaceEurope.pdf. Accessed 8 July 2012
  13. Svitak A (2011) Pleiades launch may boost French competitiveness. http://www.aviationweek.com/Article.aspx?id=/article-xml/AW_12_19_2011_p28-406519.xml&p = 1#. Accessed 20 Aug 2012Google Scholar
  14. Wikipedia.Org (2012). Helios (satellite). https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helios_%28satellite%29#cite_ref-4. Accessed 16 Aug 2012

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Hellenic Air Force AcademyAthensGreece
  2. 2.Hellenic Air ForceAthensGreece

Personalised recommendations