Encyclopedia of Metalloproteins

2013 Edition
| Editors: Robert H. Kretsinger, Vladimir N. Uversky, Eugene A. Permyakov

Bismuth, Physical and Chemical Properties

  • Fathi Habashi
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-1533-6_413

Bismuth is a metalloid of no useful mechanical properties. It is mainly used as an alloying component in fusible alloys. Only one stable isotope, 209Bi, is known, but there are several unstable isotopes (199Bi–215Bi). Isotopes with mass number > 210 are found in the natural decay chains of radioactive elements. Isotopes with mass number < 208 have been formed in nuclear transformations. The volume of the molten metal increases by about 3% on solidification.

Physical Properties

Atomic number

83

Atomic weight

208.98

Relative abundance in Earth’s crust,%

2 × 10−5

Atomic radius, nm

0.18

Density at 20°C, g/cm3

9,790

Melting point, °C

271.40

Boiling point, °C

1,564

Crystal system

Rhombohedral

Lattice constant, nm

a = 0.47457

α = 57.24°

Latent heat of fusion, J/mol

11,280

Latent heat of vaporization, J/mol

178,632

Coefficient of linear expansion, K−1

13.5 × 10−6

Electrical resistivity, μΩ cm

  At 0°C

106.8

  At 1,000°C

160.2

Specific heat at 25°C, J mol−1 K−1

25.5

Thermal conductivity, J s−1 m...

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References

  1. Habashi F (2001) Arsenic, antimony, and bismuth production. In: Encyclopedia of materials: science & technology, pp 332–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Krüger J et al (1997) In: Habashi F (ed) Handbook of extractive metallurgy. Wiley, Weinheim, pp 845–871Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mining, Metallurgical, and Materials EngineeringLaval UniversityQuebec CityCanada