Encyclopedia of Metalloproteins

2013 Edition
| Editors: Robert H. Kretsinger, Vladimir N. Uversky, Eugene A. Permyakov

Biomarkers for Cadmium

  • Walter C. Prozialeck
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-1533-6_33


Cadmium:  Cd;  Cd2+


Cadmium (Cd): Is an important industrial agent and environment pollutant that is a major cause of kidney disease in many regions of the world.

Nephrotoxicity/proximal tubule: The proximal tubule is the primary target of Cd toxicity in the kidney. Injury of proximal tubule epithelial results in increases in urine volume and excretion of low-molecular-weight proteins, amino acids, glucose, and electrolytes. These effects of Cd may result from even low levels of exposure and are often irreversible.

Biomarkers: The United States National Institutes of Health have broadly defined the term “biomarker” as a “characteristic that is objectively measured and evaluated as an indicator of normal biological processes, pathogenic processes, or pharmacologic responses to a therapeutic intervention.” In this entry, the topic of Cd biomarkers will be considered from a more narrow perspective, as “any substance or molecule that can serve as an indicator of the...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. ATSDR (2008) Toxicological profile for cadmium. http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/cercla/toxprofiles/tp5.html
  2. Bernard A (2004) Renal dysfunction induced by cadmium: biomarkers of critical effects. Biometals 17:519–523PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chen L, Jin T, Huang B et al (2006) Critical exposure level of cadmium for elevated urinary metallothionein–an occupational population study in China. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 215:93–99PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Garcon G, Leleu B, Marez T et al (2007) Biomonitoring of the adverse effects induced by the chronic exposure to lead and cadmium on kidney function: usefulness of alpha-glutathione S-transferase. Sci Total Environ 377:165–172PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Huang J (2004) Chinese National health standards for occupational exposure to cadmium and diagnostic criteria of occupational chronic cadmium poisoning. Biometals 17(5):511. doi:10.1023/B:BIOM.0000045833.30776.84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Jarup L, Akesson A (2009) Current status of cadmium as an environmental health problem. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 238:201–208PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Jin T, Nordberg G, Wu X et al (1999) Urinary N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase isoenzymes as biomarker of renal dysfunction caused by cadmium in a general population. Environ Res 81:167–173PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Moriguchi J, Inoue Y, Kamiyama S et al (2009) N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) as the most sensitive marker of tubular dysfunction for monitoring residents in non-polluted areas. Toxicol Lett 190:1–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Noonan CW, Sarasua SM, Campagna D et al (2002) Effects of exposure to low levels of environmental cadmium on renal biomarkers. Environ Health Perspect 110:151–155PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Prozialeck WC, Edwards JR (2010) Early biomarkers of cadmium exposure and nephrotoxicity. Biometals 23:793–809PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Prozialeck WC, Vaidya VS, Liu J et al (2007) Kidney injury molecule-1 is an early biomarker of cadmium nephrotoxicity. Kidney Int 72:985–993PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Prozialeck WC, Edwards JR, Lamar PC et al (2009a) Expression of kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1) in relation to necrosis and apoptosis during the early stages of Cd-induced proximal tubule injury. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 238:306–314PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Prozialeck WC, Edwards JR, Vaidya VS et al (2009b) Preclinical evaluation of novel urinary biomarkers of cadmium nephrotoxicity. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 238:301–305PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Shaikh ZA, Smith LM (1986) Biological indicators of cadmium exposure and toxicity. Experientia Suppl 50:124–130PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Suwazono Y, Sand S, Vahter M et al (2006) Benchmark dose for cadmium-induced renal effects in humans. Environ Health Perspect 114:1072–1076PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Uno T, Kobayashi E, Suwazono Y et al (2005) Health effects of cadmium exposure in the general environment in Japan with special reference to the lower limit of the benchmark dose as the threshold level of urinary cadmium. Scand J Work Environ Health 31:307–315PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Vaidya VS, Ferguson MA, Bonventre JV (2008) Biomarkers of acute kidney injury. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 48:463–493PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Weaver VM, Kim NS, Jaar BG et al (2011) Associations of low-level urine cadmium with kidney function in lead workers. Occup Environ Med 68(4):250–256PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. World Health Organization (WHO) (2000) Cadmium. http://www.euro.who.int/document/aiq/6_3cadmium.pdf
  20. Wu X, Jin T, Wang Z et al (2001) Urinary calcium as a biomarker of renal dysfunction in a general population exposed to cadmium. J Occup Environ Med 43:898–904PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PharmacologyMidwestern UniversityDowners GroveUSA