Biomarkers for Cadmium
Cadmium (Cd): Is an important industrial agent and environment pollutant that is a major cause of kidney disease in many regions of the world.
Nephrotoxicity/proximal tubule: The proximal tubule is the primary target of Cd toxicity in the kidney. Injury of proximal tubule epithelial results in increases in urine volume and excretion of low-molecular-weight proteins, amino acids, glucose, and electrolytes. These effects of Cd may result from even low levels of exposure and are often irreversible.
Biomarkers: The United States National Institutes of Health have broadly defined the term “biomarker” as a “characteristic that is objectively measured and evaluated as an indicator of normal biological processes, pathogenic processes, or pharmacologic responses to a therapeutic intervention.” In this entry, the topic of Cd biomarkers will be considered from a more narrow perspective, as “any substance or molecule that can serve as an indicator of the...
- ATSDR (2008) Toxicological profile for cadmium. http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/cercla/toxprofiles/tp5.html
- World Health Organization (WHO) (2000) Cadmium. http://www.euro.who.int/document/aiq/6_3cadmium.pdf