Encyclopedia of Metalloproteins

2013 Edition
| Editors: Robert H. Kretsinger, Vladimir N. Uversky, Eugene A. Permyakov

Biomarkers for Cadmium

  • Walter C. Prozialeck
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-1533-6_33

Synonyms

Cadmium:  Cd;  Cd2+

Definitions

Cadmium (Cd): Is an important industrial agent and environment pollutant that is a major cause of kidney disease in many regions of the world.

Nephrotoxicity/proximal tubule: The proximal tubule is the primary target of Cd toxicity in the kidney. Injury of proximal tubule epithelial results in increases in urine volume and excretion of low-molecular-weight proteins, amino acids, glucose, and electrolytes. These effects of Cd may result from even low levels of exposure and are often irreversible.

Biomarkers: The United States National Institutes of Health have broadly defined the term “biomarker” as a “characteristic that is objectively measured and evaluated as an indicator of normal biological processes, pathogenic processes, or pharmacologic responses to a therapeutic intervention.” In this entry, the topic of Cd biomarkers will be considered from a more narrow perspective, as “any substance or molecule that can serve as an indicator of the...

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References

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PharmacologyMidwestern UniversityDowners GroveUSA