Encyclopedia of Metalloproteins

2013 Edition
| Editors: Robert H. Kretsinger, Vladimir N. Uversky, Eugene A. Permyakov

Bismuth in Brain, Distribution

  • Agnete Larsen
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-1533-6_117



Encephalopathy: This term involves a large group of transient or permanent brain disorders with very diverse etiologies. Among other causes it can be mentioned metabolic alterations, bacterial, food poisoning, trauma, hypoxia, pharmacological, etc. When unresolved, encephalopathies lead to neurodegeneration. The hallmark of encephalopathy is mental alteration, impairment of cognitive functions, lethargy, confusion, tremors, seizures, convulsions, and others.

Autometallography: This method is used for the imaging of metal-containing clusters in tissues sections. This methodology involves the reduction of silver ions from a silver donor e.g., silver lactate (Ag+) to metallic silver (Ag0) by metals such as bismuth in the presence of a developer. In consequence, Ag0 is deposited in the site where the metal of interest is located and those deposits can be photographed by both light and electron microscopies.

In contrast to many other heavy metals,...

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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biomedicine/Pharmacology HealthAarhus UniversityAarhusDenmark